********************* for digital 歌目 *********************
VITALE.txt ver.2.02 2003.Nov.

original txt is--
"Chines Folklore--Pekinese Rhymes" by Guido A.Vitale 1896
Pei-T'ang press Peking

PLAIN-TEXT ver. CODE: Shift-JIS + UNICODE-TAG(&#xXXXX;) + Mojikyo-code(&M0XXXXXX;)
HTML ver. CODE: UTF-8 + Mojikyo-code(&M0XXXXXX;)
Edited with Hidemaru Editor ver.3.08
IRIZ-Zentools new2old.exe by HANAZONO University
and Konjyaku-Mojikyo Character Map ver.3.10
e-mail: YRL03232@nifty.ne.jp

********************* for digital 歌目 *********************

--- Formats for the "digital uta-moku"---

・ The marks and numbers at the head of the each verses are
  serial numbers by reproducer.
・ One 2bytes blank is inserted between these marks and body
  of each verses.
・ Sometimes two 2bytes blanks will be inserted among the body.
  they means the punctuations of verses which specially remarks
  in the source text
◎ individual cases, or have not been found their source texts.
○ quotations, or cases already seen in other texts prior.
● cases have some problems on its verses.

・ source texts which had already arrangemented or reproduced
   were expressed by the shorter marks by reproducer. And
  mentioned in each comments.

/ punctuation points of line in the original text.
[ ] additional words by reproducer.
  ・ especially, [ / ] or [ | ] were expressed the letters
   which could not found and supplised by Mojikyo-code,
   and analysed the letter by its factors, means;
   [ left | right ], [ upper / lower].
[* ] comment or illustration by reproducer.

・ Two blank lines were inserted between cases.
・ One blank line was inserted between the items.
・ One line was inserted between the body of each cases and
  comments about the its body.
・ Unification of letter style should see my "UNIFIED.txt".

********************* for digital 歌目 *********************

I bring for the first time to light a collection of Pekinese children-rhymes with the conviction that the reader may gather from the lecture these benefits.
1. The acquirement of a small treasure of words and phrases hardly to be met with elsewhere.
2. A clearer insight into scenes and details of Chinese common life.
3. The notion that some true poetry may be found in Chinese popular songs.
These rhymes have no known authors; some of them are perhaps composed by mothers watching at children's beside, others may be composed by naughty school-boys when the teacher is having his nap over a page of the great philosopher. At all events they are like wild flowers which spring up nobody knows how and when and fade and die in the same way.
The trouble in collecting them was far greater than I had thought. "Tabood" as we are in Peking, where could I go myself to hear the rhymes and note them down?
Then I had recourse to my teacher, but as he thinks to be a literary man, he grew quite indignant at my proposal, and assured and pledged that no such rubbish had ever existed in China. However as I happened (of course by chance) to take out of my drawer some dollars, and place them beneath his reach, he suddenly abated his furors and mumbled that "perhaps I was not mistaken and that of course he would by every possible mean try to get what I wanted".
And I shall say to his justice that he kept his word and the dollars. But when he had collected forty or so, his stock was quite exhausted and I had to look for other helps.
In summer time residing in temples in the neighbourhood of Peking I had large chance of intercourse with the people and could increase my stock of rhymes. I was furthermore able to improve the former texts and to reprove all those which being not matched by oral testimony were probably spurious.
After the work of collection, came the work of explanation and translation which was not always easy. The people who spoke the words often were not able to give me light on the difficult points. When pressed by me they suggested something and I picked up what looked more truthlike and reasonable; never did I force or prefer views of my own.
Somebody will object to my statement that sparkles of true poetry are to be found in this book. That will very naturally happen to all those who are entirely foreign to the Chinese world. Several rhymes (however few in proportion to the bulk of the book)(1) are simple and touching and may be "poetry" for those who have even a slight knowledge of Chinese joys and sorrows.
I shall draw also the reader's attention to the system of versification followed in these rhymes. Composed as they are by illiterate people who have no notion of written language, they show a system of versification analogous to that of many European countries, and almost completely agreeing with the rules of the Italian poetry. A new national poetry could perhaps spring up based on these rhythms and on the true feelings of the people.
I took every pain to collect the most I could, yet the work could be by far richer than it is. Those who live in freer intercourse with the people could easily add numerous and and fine samples of this uncultivated poetry. I would be extremely pleased if any one would either furnish to me new materials, or would himself undertake the work of a new collection of rhymes.
Any critic, advise or literary contribution will be gratefully received by the author.
I am glad to be able to express here may deep feelings of gratitude to Mr.A.M.C.Raab of the British Legation, who kindly undertook the revision of almost the whole manuscript and to Mr Krebs of the German Legation who kindly helped me in correcting the proofs.

Italian Legation.

Peking. 30th September 1896.


********************* for digital 歌目 *********************


◎V001-001 拉大鋸/扯大鋸/鋸木頭/蓋房子/姥姥家/娶娘子/搭大棚/唱大戲/接姑娘/請女婿/小外甥/你也去。

 Singing these words, the mother or any elder of the family takes the baby by the hands and pushes him for and backwards as if it was really the matter of drawing a saw.
 姥姥家 lao3 lao3 chia1, the family of the mother's mother.
 娶娘子 ch'u3 niang2 tzŭ, goes to fetch the bride for her son, niang2 tzŭ is the name for a wife, and here it is used instead of 新姑娘 hshin1-ku1-niang2, the real term for a bride.
 搭大棚 ta1-ta4-p'eng2, they raise a large matshed. The chinese houses have not generally large rooms, therefore in marriage, death, anniversary, and other occasions in which many guests are to be invited, an additional matshed is raised in the court-yard.
 大戲 ta-hsi, a play performed in the matshed by hired actors, an amusement much liked by the Chinese, but which only rich people can afford to have in their houses. 接姑娘請女婿 chie1 ku1-niang2 ch'ing3 nü-hsü1, the grandmother with her family invites on this marriage occasion her married daughters and their husbands.
 外甥 uai4-sheng1, is the name by which a sister's son is designed.

 (People) draw the saw--pull the saw--saw the wood--build rooms--the grandmother and her family go to fetch the bride--a large mat-shed is raised--in which a play is performed--and they come to take home the married daughters and to invite their husbands--small nephew--do you want also to go?  

◎V002-002 上軲轆臺/下軲轆臺/張家媽媽倒茶來/茶也香/酒也香/十八個駱駝駝衣裳/駝不動/叫麻愣/麻愣含着一口水/噴了小姐花褲腿/小姐小姐你別惱/明兒後兒車來到/甚麽車/紅轂轆轎車白馬拉/裏頭坐着個俏人家/灰鼠皮襖銀鼠褂/對子荷包小針兒扎/解南來了個二等轄/把着車門兒問阿煞/阿煞阿煞你上那兒去/我到南邊兒瞧親家/瞧完了親家到我家/我家現成兒的老米飯/達子餑餑就奶茶/安南檳榔夾四瓣兒/硌你這個厭物兒的老包牙。

 軲轆臺 ku1 lu1 t'ai2, a rounded stone placed Sometimes outside the outerdoors to sit on.
 麻愣 ma2-leng4 is the dragon fly(libellula virgo) it ought to be correctly written 螞螂 and pronounced ma1-lang2, I have however preferred the more popular and incorrect form as the sounds and the tones of the characters correspond to the Pekinese pronunciation and the correct form is popularly unknown.
 含着 han2-cho, holding something in the mouth without showing it. The correct pronunciation of the character 含 is han2, as it is also pronounced in vulgar phrases as for instance 暗含着 an4 han2 cho, hiddenly without showing, said sometimes of a meaning hidden in words which pretend not to say anything.
 褲腿 k'u4 t'uei3, cloth-bands wrapped around the ankles of ladies with small feet.
 轎車 chiao4 che1, sort of cart longer than the ordinary one, used only by the upper mandarin classes.
 俏人家 ch'iao1 jen2 chia1, a beautiful woman.
 灰鼠 huei1-shu3, the grey squirrel.
 皮襖 p'i2-ao3, chinese overcoat lined with fur.
 銀鼠 yin2-shu3, the white squirrel.
 對子 tuei4-tzu, a pair the numeral--one is wanting.
 荷包 ho2-pao1, a small side-pouch in which the chinese keep banknotes, or even betel-nuts.
 小針兒 hsiao3-chen1-eur, a small needle used by women to work flowers on a cloth. This working different from the embroidery is called 扎 cha1 轄 hsia4, the character ought to be pronounced in the second tone, but here is pronounced in the first because it is only used to represent the Manchu word "hiya" meaning a body-guard of the sovereign this word is very often used in Pekin instead of the chinese equivalent 侍衞 shi4-wei4.
 阿煞 characters which represent the Manchu word asha meaning one's elder brother's wife, and is used in the same complimentary way and in the same meaning as the chinese 嫂子 sao3-tzŭ.
 達子餑餑 ta2-tzŭ puo1-puo1, tartar-cakes many of which keep yet their old Manchu names, and are largely used in Peking.
 奶茶 nai3-ch'a2, "milk-tea".
 安南檳榔 an1-nan2-ping1-lang2, Annamite betel-nuts.
 夾四瓣兒 chia1-ssu4-pan4'r, which are cut in four pieces.
 硌 ko4 character not mentioned in any dictionary it means to stick in the teeth, and also to hinder, to hurt.
 厭物兒 yen4 u4'r, despising term for a person who disgusts people it could be translated "you worrying thing!"
 包牙 pao1 ya2, it is said of the front teeth when they protrude under the upper lip.

 Goes up the sitting-stone--comes down from the sitting stone(!). The old lady Chang comes to pour tea--the tea is fragrant--the wine is fragrant--ten camels are loaden with clothes--they are unable to move on--and they call the dragon-fly--the dragon fly-with the mouth full of water spurts the young lady's figured ankle-bands--young lady, young lady do not get cross-- to-morrow or after to-morrow the cart shall arrive--what cart?--a chair-cart with red wheels, drawn by a white horse and inside there sits a beautiful woman--who wears an over coat lined with grey squirrel fur and a jacket lined with ermine fur--and has with her a pair of side-pouches with flowers worked on it by the small needle--then, comes from the south direction an Imperial body-guard of the second class--who learning to the cart-door asks his sister-in-law--sister-in-law, sister-in-law, where do you go?--"I am going towards south to pay a visit to my family"--"When you have already paid a visit to your family, come to my house.--I have at home ready-cooked old rice--tartar cakes and tea milk--but the Annamite betel-nuts cut in four pieces--shall break the protruding old front teeth of you worrying thing!"

◎V003-006 楊樹葉兒/嘩拉拉/小孩兒睡覺找他媽/乖乖寶貝兒你睡罷/螞虎子來了我打他。

 楊樹 yang2 shu4, the poplar(latin populus) this tree is in China very commonly seen in burial grounds. The Chinese say that its leaves stir even without wind, and that the noise produced by their stirring, moves to sadness.
 嘩拉拉 hua1 la1 la1, pronounced as one word, is imitative of the noise. This sad introduction is supposed to scare the boy and to get him sooner asleep.
 乖乖 kuai1-kuai1, means to somewhat a different way than the Europeans. The same expression is used too say: be quiet! don't be saucy!-- probably the two meanings melt in one, as the second may simply be a promise of a kiss if
the boy will be quiet. Another common form for the last meaning is adverbially formed so, 乖乖兒的 kuai4 kuai4'r ti.
 螞虎子 ma1 hu3 tzŭ, a phantastic monstruos creature spoken of and called every time it is thought proper to scare a baby.

 The poplar leaves--are stiring--the baby is about to sleep and looks for his mother--be a good boy, my treasure, get asleep--if the bogie comes, I'll beat him.

◎V004-007 挑水的哥/聽着我說/南河沿兒/有你的窩/晴天晒蓋子/陰天把脖兒縮。

 These words are addressed by the chineseboys to the water-carriers who are generally people of the Shantung province. As no water-ways of any kind exist in Peking, a great many of these fellows take the water from the wells into the houses. Their bad pronunciation, and their awkward manners delight extremely the Peking cockneys. The boys have therefore composed for their benefit this special song, which they hum at their back, and whose general aim is to define them as turtles. The word turtle in China is used for one of the most direst insults, as this animal is phantastically impeached of an unnatural crime. The insult is shocked by it.
 哥 ko1 means elder brother, but same way as the Russians use the word brat(latin frater).
 窩 uo1 means not only a nest but also a den, a hole.
 晒蓋子 shai4 kai4-tzŭ, to dry the shell in the run, as turtles do.
 縮 suo1, to withdraw one's head, to retreat. This last phrase is allusive to the fact that the water-carriers do not go out when it rains, as the turtles do too.

 Water carrying fellow--hear what I say--on the bank of the south river--is your hole--when the weather is fine, you dry out your shell--and when it is bad weather then you draw in your neck.
 [* see also CMG026-036,平171-093,続121-060.]

◎V005-009 沙土地兒/跑白馬/一跑跑到丈人家/大舅兒望裏讓/小舅兒望裏拉/隔着竹廉兒看見他/銀盤大臉黑頭髮/月白緞子綿襖銀疙疸。

 沙土地兒 sha1 t'u3 ti4'r, a sandy plain ground as outside the wall between the Manchu and the Chinese town in Peking.
 丈人 chang4-jen, name given to one's wife or bride's father.
 大舅兒 ta4-chiou4'r, one's wife's elder brother.
 小舅兒 hsiao3 chiou4'r, one's wife's younger brother.
 For 他 is here to be understood the bride whom the young man succeeds in spying through the curtain.
 銀盤大臉 yin2 pan2 ta4 lien3, a big face as a silver tray.
 月白 yüe4 pei2, "moon white" means a light blue.
 疙疸 read ko1-ta1 or more vulgarly ka1-ta1 here means a metal button, It may also mean pimples and has other different shades of meanings.

 On the sandy plain--gallops a white horse--galloping gets to the (horseman's) future father-in-law's house--his elder brother-in-law inventes him to come in--his younger brother-in-law pulls him in--through the bamboo-curtain he has seen her--her large face as white as a silver-tray and her black hair--and her cotton overcoat of light azure colour with silver buttons.
 [* One of the song identifed by the phrase named 看見她. 疙疸 was also written as 疙瘩.]

◎V006-010 小禿兒/咧咧咧/南邊兒打水是你爹/你爹戴着紅纓帽/你媽穿着乍板兒鞋/走一步/蹋拉拉/十個脚指頭露着三。

 The chinese boys generally as far as three years old have their hair shaven therefore a common nickname for a boy is 禿子 t'u1'r, meaning a bald-headed.
 咧咧咧 lie1-lie1-lie1, is imitative of the sound of weeping. The boy weeps and to quiet him the song is sung to him.
 打水 ta3 shuei3, to draw water from a well, by a rope and a bucket.
 紅纓子 hung2 ing1 tzŭ, Red silk twists fixed round the top of a chinese official hat.
 乍板兒鞋 cha4 pan3'r hsie2, old shoes with no heels they are so called because the noise the sole produces slapping on the ground is like the sound of a chinese musical instrument called 乍板兒 cha4 pan3'r, consisting in small bamboo tablets strung together, which are shaken by the fingers in a similar manner to the Spanish and Italian castanets.
 蹋拉拉 t'a1 la1 la1, imitates the slapping of the shoe sole on the ground.
 三 san1 is here (as very often in vulgar language) pronounced sa1, in order to rhyme with the precedent verse who ends with 拉.

 Small bald-headed--here he is weeping!--to the south side it's your father who draws water from the well--your father wears an official hat with red silk twists on it--and your mother wears on her feet old shoes with no heels--as she advances a step--it sounds t'alala--and of her ten toes three peep out of her shoes.
 [* 蹋 is monosyllablly pronounced as ta4, but also speaken in 0 tone in some words, and 蹋拉 is now generally written as "趿拉".]

◎V007-012 麻子麻/上樹爬/狗又咬/人又拿/嚇的麻子摔了個麻跟頭/麻大錢/買了個麻燒餅/麻子喫/麻子看/麻子打架麻子勸/麻衙役/拿板子/單打麻子的麻腿子。

 This song is profusedly interspersed with the character 痳 ma2 whose meaning is "small pox." This disease is so common in China that very often children who have been sick with it and keep marks on their faces are familiarly called 痳子 ma2-tzŭ. Furthermore the word is used in other relative meanings. Here throughout these words, it is impossible to translate it always, as the repetition is done for the sake of playing on the word. The character I have written here is the regular one, but popularly the other character 麻 ma2, which means hemp, is substituted for it. In the first verse it is repeated to intensify the original meaning, thus saying "much marked with small pox."
 痳跟頭 ma2 ken1 t'ou2, ken1-t'ou2 is a tumble the word 痳 ma2 is referred to the subject.
 痳大錢 ma2 ta4 ch'ien2, so is called a cash when its surface is sugged,
an uneven surface, as it is when sesamum seeds are placed on it.
 燒餅 shao1 ping3, round wheaten cake.

 The boy much marked with the small pox--climbs up a tree--the dog barks--and people go to catch him.--The small-pox marked is so scared that he tumbles.--With an old rugged cash he buy a cake--a small pox marked eats--and a small pox marked looks on--the small pox marked come to a fight--and a small-pox marked advises peace--small pox marked policemen--take the bamboo stick--and only thrash the legs of the small pox marked boy.
 [* 李家瑞 cited a chapbook titled「雙黃」in his『北平俗曲略』p.167, in there seen a variation of this kind; "麻子麻,上樹扒,狗又咬,人又拿,唬的麻子&M072467;之呀,&M072467;之牙,&M072467;之牙."]

◎V008-014 誰跟我頑兒/打火鎌兒/火鎌兒燒/賣甜瓜/甜瓜苦/賣豆腐/豆腐爛/茶雞蛋/雞蛋雞蛋殼殼/裏頭坐着哥哥/哥哥出來買菜/裏頭坐着奶奶/奶奶出來燒香/燒了鼻子眼睛。

 火鎌兒 huo3 lien2'r, a piece of steel used strike sparks from a flint.
 甜瓜 t'ien2 kua1, sweet melon.
 豆腐 tou4-fu3, bean cheese, largely used in China.
 茶雞蛋 ch'a2 chi1 tan4, eggs boiled in tea.
 雞蛋殼殼 chi1 tan4 k'o1'r the shell of an egg it is generally pronounced k'o2'r.

 Who is going to play with me?--strike the flint-steel--the flint steel takes fire--sell sweet melons--the sweet melons are bitter--sell bean cheese--the bean cheese is spoiled--boil eggs in tea--in the shell of the egg, of the egg--there is sitting the elder brother--the elder brother goes out to buy provisions--inside there sits the grand-mother--the grand mother goes out to burn incense--and burns her nose and her eyes.

◎V009-015 我一個大兒子/一個兒子/寶貝疙疸兒/開胸順氣丸。

 These words are often repeated by the pekinese mothers to their babies.
 疙疸兒 ko1 ta1'r, means here a little thing of a round form just as it was a round metal button.
 開胸順氣丸 k'ai1 hsiung1 shun4 ch'i4 uan2, is a medical pill advised by chinese doctors to people who feel the breast oppressed and the respiration uneasy. The literal translation of its name is "pill which opens (lightens) the breast and makes the respiration easy. The mothers liken their babies to that pill, and really every mother holding her child in her arms must feel happy and free from every sorrow.

 This one great son of mine!--one son of mine! a precious little thing!--a pill who lightens the heart and makes people happy!
 [* 疙疸 was also written by 疙瘩]

◎V010-016 我兒子睡覺了/我花兒困覺了/我花兒把卜了/我花兒是個乖兒子/我花兒是個哄人精。

 These words are repeated by mothers near the cradle of their sons to get them asleep.
 The phrase 把卜了 pa4 pu3 la,is rather difficult to explain, because the Chinese themselves cannot give it a meaning. However, after many enquiries I see that people are generally of opinion. that this phrase has the meaning of being drowsy, being asleep.
 乖兒子 kuai1 eur2 tzŭ, an obedient boy, meaning derived from the above mentioned phrase 乖乖 kuai1 kuai1, "be quiet!".
 哄人的精 hung3 jen2 ti ching1, the word hung3 which means commonly to deceive, but its original meaning is to cajole, to flatter, to charm. The word ching1 means essence, semen the whole phrase could be translated: the essence, the flower of those who charm people.

 My flower is sleeping--my flower has fallen asleep--my flower is resting--my flower is a quiet son--my flower is the flower of those who charm people.

◎V011-017 黃狗黃狗你看家/我到南邊採梅花/一朶梅花沒採了/雙雙人兒到我家/我家媳婦兒會擀麵/拿起擀麵杖一大片/拿起刀賽如線/擱在鍋裏團團轉/盛在碗裏蓮花瓣/公一碗/婆一碗/兩個小姑兒兩半碗/案板底下藏一碗/貓兒過來舔舔碗/狗兒過來砸了碗/耗子過來鋸上碗/嚇的媳婦兒直瞪眼/媳婦兒/媳婦兒在那兒睡/在爐坑裏睡/鋪甚麽/鋪羊皮/蓋甚麽/蓋狗皮/枕甚麽/枕棒錘/公公拿着一落磚/婆婆拿着一溜鞭/打的媳婦兒一溜煙。

 This song although very childish, yet is founded on the fact that chinese mothers-in-law are daughters-in-law.
 雙雙人兒 shuang1 shuang1 jen2r, means a couple of persons, not four persons.
 我家媳婦兒 uo3 chia1 hsi2 fu4'r, "the wife in my house" probably these words are meant to be uttered by the mother-in-law, who may call so her son's daughter.
 擀 麵 kan3 mien4, to stretch out dought to make vermicelli.
 擀 麵杖 kan3 mien4 chang4, a roller to stretch dough.
 一大片 i1 ta4 p'ien4, a large flat piece(of dough) in the text the
verb "she stretches out" is wanting.
 賽如線 sai4 ju4 hsien4, which may rival, compete with thread as to thinness.
 團團轉 t'uan2 t'uan2 chuan4, conglomerated they turn round in the pan.(said of the vermicelli)
 蓮花瓣 lien2-hua1-pan4,(as they were) petals of the lotus blossom.
 公 kung1 father-in-law, here kung1 is instead of 公公 kung1 kung1.
 婆 p'uo2, mother-in-law, here p'uo2 is instead of 婆婆 p'ou2 p'ou2.
 小姑兒 hsiao3 ku1'r, her husband's younger sisters.
 案板 an4 pan3, a wood board on which dough is stretched to make vermicelli.
 爐坑 lu2 k'eng1 is a pit under the stove where the ashes fall down: an imcommon severe punishment inflicted by mothers-in-law to their daughters-in-law is to let them sleep in the stove-pit.
 鋪甚麽 p'u1 she2nmo, what have you for bedding?
 枕甚麽 chen3 she2nmo, what have you for pillow? Somebody is supposed to ask now from the unfortunate wife about her condition.
 棒錘 pang4 ch'ui2, a beater used in washing clothes it is generally made of 棗木 tsao3 mu4, date wood.
 落磚 i1 luo4 chuan1, a pile of bricks, that is to say, as many bricks as could form a pile of them.
 一溜鞭 i1 liou4 pien1, "a row of whips" rather a strange expression for many whips, lots of whips.
 一溜煙 i1 liou4 yen1, as a stream of smoke the verse is not complete because its whole meaning is: they beat the wife so that she runs away as quickly as a stream of smoke(a cloud of smoke). The Chinese associate the idea of smoke with quickness very often it is heard 他走一溜煙兒似的 t'a1 tsou3 i1 liou4 yen1'r shih4-ti, he walks as quickly as a stream of smoke.

 Yellow dog, yellow dog, look after the house--I go towards South to pluck plum-blossoms--I have not yet plucked a single plum-blossom--and two persons arrrive at the house--my son's wife knows how to stretch out dough.--she takes the roller and stretches a large slice of dough--she takes the knife and cuts vermicelli as thin as thread--then she puts them in the cooking-pan, and they turn conglomerated about--afterwards she puts them down in the bowls and they look like petals of the lotus blossom.--(She fills)one bowl for her father-in-law--one bowl for her mothe-in-law--and two half-bowls for her sisters-in-law--she hides one bowl under the dough-board--but the cat comes over and licks the bowl--the dog comes over and has broken the bowl--the mice come over and gnaw the bowl --and the housewife is so scaried that she stares vacantly--"wife, wife, where do you sleep?"--"I sleep in the stove-pit--what have you for bedding?--I have for bedding a goat's skin--what have you for coverlet?--I have a dog's skin--what have you for pillow?--I have a linen-beater--the father-in-law takes up in his hands as many bricks as could form a pile--the mother-in-law holds up in her hands a row of whips--and they beat the wife so that she runs away as quickly as a stream of smoke.

◎V012-021 寒鴉兒寒鴉兒過/一遍打十個/熬着喫/煮着喫/剝了皮兒更好喫。

 寒鴉兒 han2 ya1'r' is the Corvus monedula, a white breasted crow a large number of them comes to Peking from the North, at the beginning of winter, and their first apparition is greeted by the Pekinese boys with these verses who are however too gastronomic to be sentimental. The flesh of these crows is eatable, but the taste for it is not general.
 一遍 i1 pien4, at one time.
 剝 puo1 is read vulgarly pao2.

 The white breasted crows, the white breasted crows are passing--at one time we strike ten of them--we eat them boiled in gravy--we eat them boiled--but they are even better to eat when the skin is taken off them.

◎V013-022 小白菜兒/地裏黃/七八歲兒/離了娘/好好兒跟着爹爹過/又怕爹爹娶後娘/娶了後娘三年整/養了個兄弟比我強/他喫菜/我泡湯/哭哭啼啼想親娘。

 Of all the popular songs that are in this collection, I think this one could claim any artistic value. It is very simple, subject and words, but the
child's grief is movingly depicted. The boy likeness himself to a small cabbage which gets yellow and dry in the earth, because nobody takes care of it. The comparison is not poetical for us, but in China there is nothing peculiarly vulgar attached to the word cabbage.
 過 kuo4 is here for 過日子 kuo4 jih4-tzŭ, to live, to get on.
 三年整 san1 nien2 cheng3, just after three years.
 泡湯 p'ao4 t'ang1, to pour the gravy on the rice.
 哭哭啼啼 k'u1 k'u1 t'i2 t'i2, weeping and wailing.

 Like the small cabbage--which has become yellow any dry on the ground--at the age of seven or eight years, I have lost my mother.--I lived so well near my father--only I was afraid he would take another wife-- and he has taken her just after three years--they have given me a brother who is more worthy than I am--because he eats the food--and I only may pour the gravy on my rice--weeping and wailing I think of my own mother!

◎V014-023 張大嫂/李大嫂/上南坡/摘豆角/肚子疼/往家跑/撩炕蓆/鋪炕草/養了個兒子/叫豆保/豆保開大店/又賣饅頭又賣麵。

 大嫂 ta4 sao3, general appellation for the elder brother's wife married women call each other ta4 sao3 for sake of ceremony.
 豆角 tou4 chiao3, bean pods.
 撩 liao1, to grasp, to pull, here,"to pull away".
 炕蓆 k'ang4 hsi2, the mat which is spread on the k'ang.
 Somebody could be curious to know which of the two ladies ran home, but the song does not satisfy the curiosity.

 Mistress Chang--and Mistress Li--have goes to the Southern slope--to gather bean pods--(one of them) felt a pain in her bosom--and ran home--pulled off the k'ang-mat--spread dry grass on the k'ang--and bore a child whom she called Tou1 pao3--Tou1-pao3 not it has opened a shop--and sells bread and flower.

◎V015-025 日頭出來一點紅/師傅騎馬我騎龍/師傅騎馬遶街走/我騎青龍過海東/海東有我家/我家種着五盆花/大姐愛個紅芍藥/二姐愛個牡丹花/三姐愛的是桃花瓣/四姐愛的是大蓮花/剩下五姐無的愛/一心要出家/出家人兒樂陶陶/一來不受公婆氣/二來不受丈夫熬/三來懷中不抱子/四來散淡又逍遙。

 芍藥 shao2 yao4, peony,lat.paeonia.
 牡丹 mu3 tan1, the tree peony, lat.paeonia mutan.
 蓮花,lian2 hua1, the lotus flower, lat.Nelumbium speciosum.
 無的愛 u2 ti1 ai4, she has nothing that she likes.
 出家 ch'u1 chia1,"to go out of the family" means to enter the monastic life.
 樂陶陶 lo4 t'ao2 t'ao2, joyfully, happily.
 熬 ao1, to boil, to decoct, and figurately to vex, to disturb.
 散淡 san3 tan4, freely, easily, with no coercions.
 逍遙 hsiao1 yao2, in a state of peace and bliss.

 The sun has come out like a red spot--my teacher rides on a horse and I ride on a dragon--the teacher riding on the horse goes along the streets--I riding on the dark dragon cross over to the East of the sea--at the East of the sea there lives my family--and in my family they cultivate five flower-pots--my first sister likes the red peony--my second sister likes the tree peony--my third sister likes the petals of the peach blossom--my fourth sister likes the large lotus blossoms.--There is the fifth sister who has nothing she may like--and does not think other but of becoming a nun --the women in the monastic life live very happily indeed--firstly they do not suffer the vexations of father-and mother-in-law--secondly they do not suffer a husband's maltreatment--thirdly they do not bear children--and fourthly they live freely and in a condition of blissful peace.

◎V016-027 剔燈棍兒/打燈花兒/爺爺兒尋了個禿奶奶兒/眼又斜/嘴又歪/氣的爺爺兒竟發獃。

 剔燈棍兒 t'i teng1 kun4'r, a wire to pull up the wick in an oil lamp.
 打燈花兒 ta3 teng1 hua1'r, to take away the burned part of the wick.--The scene depicted is rather a comic one a man has married a woman whom he has never seen, and as soon as he enters the nupital room, he snuffs the candle to see better and perceives that the bride is a very ugly one.
 爺爺兒 ye2 ye2'r, means in vulgar Pekinese a man, a husband as 奶奶 nai3 nai3'r, means a woman, a wife. Both words are used in different meanings in family relations technology.
 發獃 fa1 tai1, to stare vacantly.

 With the oil-lamp wire--he takes away the burned wick--the man perceives he has got for himself a bald wife--she is squint eyed--and has a crooked mouth--the husband is so struck with anger--that he stares stupidity.
 [* see also 平021-011,平184-099; "撥燈棍打燈臺…"]

◎V017-028 石榴花兒的姐/茉莉花兒的郎/芙蓉花兒的帳子/繡花兒的床/蘭芝花兒的枕頭/芍藥花兒的被/繡球花兒褥子鬧嚷嚷/叫聲秋菊海棠來掃地/虞美人兒的姑娘走進了房/兩對銀花鏡/梳油頭桂花兒香/臉擦官粉玉簪花兒香/嘴點朱唇桃花瓣兒香/身穿一件大紅襖/下地羅裙拖落地長/叫了聲松花兒來掃地/松花掃起百合花香/茨姑葉兒尖/荷花葉兒圓/靈芝開花兒抱牡丹/水仙開花兒香十里/梔子開花兒嫂嫂望江南。

 It appears this song has no other aim than to put together the greatest number of flowers and plants names.
 石榴花 shih2 liu2 hua1, pomegranate flowers.
 茉莉花 muo4 li4 hua1, Arabian jasmine(lat.Jasminum Sambac).
 芙蓉花 fu1 jung2 hua1, the Hibiscus mutabilis.
 繡花 hsiou4 hua1, flowers embroidered by hand.
 蘭芝花 lan2 chih1 hua1, and also 蘭花 lan2 hua1, the Cymbidium ensifolium.
 繡球花 hsiou4 ch'iu1 hua1, sort of geranium(lat.geranium zonale).
 鬧嚷嚷 nao4 jang1 jang1, to be noisy, here perhaps to be in confusion, to be meddled together.
 秋菊 ch'iu1 chü2, autumn chrysanthemum.
 海棠 hai3 t'ang2, pyrus spectabilis, cultivated for its flowers and fruits.
 虞美人 yü2 mei2 jen2, papaver rhoeas, a double variety of the poppy.
 桂花 kuei4 hua1, the Cassia flower(lat. Cinnamomum Cassia).
 官粉 kuan1 fen3, sort of good white cosmetic powder which ladies rub on their cheeks.
 玉簪花 yü4 tsan1 hua1, Funkia subcordata.
 下地 hsia4-ti4, to reach the ground.
 羅裙 luo2 ch'ün2, a long petticoat, made with a sort of silk called 羅 luo2.
 拖落 t'uo1 lo4, is said of the dresses when they are too long and the skirts sweep the ground.
 松花 sung1 hua1, pine-flower. The Chinese use to throw the flowers into the stove to prevent the bad smell of coal.
 百合花 pae3-ho2-hua1 read also puo4-ho2-hua1, the lily(lat.Llium).
 茨姑 tz'u2 ku1, an herb with arrowlike the leaves (lat. Sagittaria sagittifolia).
 荷花 ho2 hua1, the Lotus blossom, the same as 蓮花 lien2 hua1,(lat.Nelumbium speciosum).
 靈芝 ling2 chih1, the plant of long life.
 水仙 shuei3 hsien1, the narcissus.
 梔子 chih1-tzŭ, the gardenia.
 望江南 uang4 chiang1 nan2, means literally "looking towards the South of the river" but it is also a flower name.

 The bride, is the pomegranate flower--the bridegroom is the jasmin--the curtains are covered with flowers of the Hibiscus mutabilis--the bed is covered with embroidered flowers--the pillow is covered with flowers of Cymbidium ensifolium--and the coverlet is spread with peony flowers--the mattress is strown with geraniums flowers, which are in disorder--they call the autumn chrysanthemum and the flower of the pyrus spectabilis, to let them sweep the floor--here miss poppy has entered the room--there are two mirrors with frames inlaid with silver--and she combs her hair as perfumed as the Cassia flower--then she rubs her face with white cosmetic powder, with the smell of the Funkia subcordata--and she marks a red spot on her lips, as scented as petals of the peach blossom--she wears a big red overcoat--and a petticoat so long that it sweeps the ground--then she calls the pine flower that it may sweep the floor--the pine flowers begins to sweep the floor and a lily odour is smelt--the leaves of the Sagittaria sagittifolia are pointed--the leaves of the lotus blossom are round--the plant of immortality opening the flowers embraces the tree peony--the narcissus opens the flowers and odour is smelt as far as ten li--the gardenia opens the flowers and the sister-in-law "looks tward South."
 [* 1. There was no lat.name about "geranium zonale". It would be his misunderstanding of "Pelargonium zonale Ait." 繡球花 is now realised as a general name of Hydrangea. But originally it would be thought the name of Viburum macrocephalum sterik, till the gardening Hydrangea was brought from Japan. And many floweres blossomed like embroideried ball were calld of the name of 繡球--. I can't decide whether he erred or he hadn't known Hydrangea. But it can also think a sort of geranium was called about those names. 2.桂花 was not said Cinnamomum Cassia, in this case. It means the flowers of Osmanthus. 3. I don't know what "Funkia subcordata". But 玉簪花 is now known as "Hosta plantaginea Aschers." 4.望江南 means the blossoms of Cassia occidentalis L..]

◎V018-031 槐樹槐/槐樹底下搭戲臺/人家的姑娘都來了/我家的姑娘還不來/說着說着就來了/騎着驢/打着傘/光着脊梁挽着纂。

 槐樹 huai2 shu4, the ash tree(lat. fraxinus).
 打着傘 ta3 cho1 san3, keeping the umbrella open.
 光着脊梁 kuang1 cho1 chi3 liang3, bare from head to waist.
 挽着纂 uan3 cho1 tsuan3, with the back-hair combed as a chignon.

 Ash trees, ash trees--under the ash trees they have raised a stage--everybody's girls are come--only mine does not come yet--just while speaking, here she is come--riding on a donkey--with an open parasol--and with her hair combed into a chignon.
 [* 槐樹 is not fraxinus. It is Sophora japonica L..]

◎V019-032 小二哥/喫飯兒多/喫完了飯/打老婆/打的老婆上窗戶/窗戶沒有檔兒/打的老婆照鏡兒/鏡子沒有底兒/打的老婆唱曲兒/曲兒沒有頭兒/打的老婆耍猴兒/猴兒沒有圈兒/打的老婆鑽天兒。

 There is not much coherence in the words,and the fun is in the fact that many verses are ended with the final 兒, which produces a ridiculous effect.
 二哥 eur4 ko1, the second brother in the family also simply a familiar name.
 老婆 lao3 p'uo2, an old woman, a wife. The accent falls generally on the
老 lao3 in this meaning but if said lao3 p'uo2 tzŭ3, with the accent on the p'uo2, then it means "a female servant".
 檔兒 tang4'r, small wood bars placed horizontally in the chinese window-sash.
 耍猴兒 shua3 hou2'r,"to(let) play the monkey,that is to exhibit the tricks of a monkey to gain the life" the other metaphorical meaning is "to lark, to romp, to be imperrinent".
 圈兒 ch'iuan1'r, a wooden circle through which the monkeys are let jump.

 The small second brother--eats too much--and when he has finished eating--he beats his wife --and the wife is so beaten that she jumps on the window--the window has no bars--and the wife is so beaten that she looks in the mirror--the mirror has no bottom--the wife is beaten so that she begins to sing--the song has no end--the wife is so beaten that she "plays with the monkey"--the monkey has no circle--and the wife is so beaten that she springs up to the sky.

◎V020-034 金軲轆棒/銀軲轆棒/爺爺兒打板兒/奶奶兒唱/一唱唱到大天亮/養活了個孩子沒處兒放/一放放在鍋臺上/嗞兒嗞兒的喝米湯。

軲轆棒 ku1 lu4 pang4, a child toy, consisting in a short wood mace with a handle. The wood above the handle is circularly worked as to give the idea of wheels 軲轆 ku1 lu4. It is the mention of an ancient chinese weapon.
 大天亮 ta4 tien1 liang4, when the daylight was very bright.
 嗞兒嗞兒 tzŭ1'r tzŭ1'r,imitates the sound produced by the lips of a person who is sipping broth. There was no character in the dictionary for it, but I was forced to adopt the above written as corresponding to the exact sound and having by side the radical 口.

 Glit wood mace--silvered wood mace--the husband strikes the castanets and the wife sings--and they have been singing till broad daylight--and she has born a child, and there was no place to lay him--and they have laid him on the kitchen-stove--where he is sipping the rice gravy.
 [* see also CMG092-100,平111-059.]

◎V021-035 扯扯/扯軲轆圓/家家門前掛紅線/紅線厚/甩大袖/一甩甩在門後頭/門後頭/掛腰刀/腰刀尖/頂大天/天打雷/狗咬賊/唏&M066116;嘩拉又一回。

 These words are sung by children as they give each other the hand and turn around in a circle: no particularly defined meaning is attached to them, as they are put together only to keep measure with the step.
 軲轆圓 ku1 lu4 yüan2, as round as a wheel.
 甩 shuai3, expresses a movement peculiar to the Chinese, that of letting down with a sudden jerk of the arm, the long sleeve which was tucked
up the wrist.
 唏&M066116;嘩拉 hsi1 liu1 hua1 la1, words with no meaning.

 Draw, draw--draw the circle as round as a wheel--at every house-door is hanging a red thread--the red thread is thick--drop the sleeve--drop it as far as behind the door--behind the door--is hanging the swoard--the sword is cutting--and is so long that it touches the sky--the sky thunders--the dog bites the thieves--hsiliuhuala once more!
 [* see also 平056-028.]

◎V022-036 大禿子得病/二禿子慌/三禿子請大夫/四禿子熬薑湯/五禿子擡/六禿子埋/七禿子哭着走進來/八禿子問他哭甚麽/我家死了個禿乖乖/快快兒擡/快快兒埋/別讓那個葫蘆子兒迸出來。

 For a baldhead is meant in this song a child, for the reason explained before.
 薑湯 chiang1 t'ang1, ginger broth, a medicine given to make the patient sweat.
 乖乖 kuai1 kuai1, dear, treasure, said of children.
 葫蘆子兒 hu2 lu2 tzŭ3'r, the seeds in his gourd(meaning his head).
 迸出來 peng4 ch'u1 lai2, to spring up said of things which being thrown down, by force of elasticity, spring up.

 The first baldhead gets sick--the second baldhead is scared the third baldhead goes to call a doctor--the fourth baldhead boils a ginger decoction--the fifth baldhead bears him(the sick one) on the shoulders--the sixth baldhead buries him--the seventh baldhead comes in--the eight baldhead asks "why do you weep"?--In my family a dear baldhead is dead--quickly take him away--quickly bury him--lest the seeds should spring out of his gourd.

◎V023-038 樹葉青/呀呀兒英/我跟姐姐過一冬/姐姐蓋着花花被/妹妹蓋着羊皮睡/姐姐穿着紬子襖/妹妹穿着破皮襖/姐姐戴着金簪子/妹妹戴着竹圈子/姐姐騎着高頭馬/妹妹騎着樹喀杈/姐姐登着銀鐙兒/妹妹登着牆縫兒/姐姐抱着個銀娃娃/妹妹抱着個癩蛤麻/走一步來哇兒呱哇兒呱又哇兒呱。

 呀呀兒英 ya1 ya1'r ying1, meaningless refrain which rhymes with the preceding verse.
 花花被 hua1 hua1 pei4, a coverlet embroidered with flowers.
 簪子, tsan1 tzŭ, chinese hair-pin.
 竹圈子 chu2 ch'iüan1 tzŭ, ear-rings made of bamboo in Peking ear-rings
are generally called 鉗子 ch'ien2 tzŭ.
 嘎杈 k'a1 ch'a1, a forked branch.
 癩蛤麻[*=癩蛤蟆] lai4 ha2 ma1, a scabby toad.
 哇兒呱 ku1'r kua1, imitates the voice of a toad.

 The tree leaves are dark--I spend a winter with my elder sister--my elder sister covers her bed with a coverlet embroidered with flowers--and I the younger sister cover my bed with a goat skin--my elder sister wears a satin overcoat--I the younger sister wears a broken skin overcoat--my elder sister wears golden hair-pins--and I the younger sister wears bamboo ear-rings--my elder sister rides on a splendid horse--and I the younger sister ride on a forked branch--my elder sister leans her feet on silver strrups--and I the younger sister lean my feet on the wall crevices--my elder sister holds in her arms a silver baby--and I the younger sister hold in my arms a scabby toad--which moves a step and then cries kurkua kurkua.

◎V024-040 立了秋來立了秋/八月十五月兒照高樓/鴉雀無聲人煙靜/瞧見了兩個押虎子走籌/一根燈草嫌他不亮/兩根燈草又怕費了油/有心要買一枝羊油爉/怎奈我手中沒有猴兒頭。

 立秋 li4 ch'iu1, the beginning of winter.
 照 chao4, illumines.
 人煙靜, jen2 yen1 ching4, men and smoke (houses) are resting everything is quiet.
 押虎子 ya1 hu3 tzŭ, Peking street watchmen, kept by the Government to tell the hour by striking on a bamboo rattle.
 走籌 tsou3 ch'ou2, to take round by night time a bamboo tally from one watch-post to another.
 一根燈草 i1 ken1 teng1 ts'ao3, a lamp wick made of the stalk of the Juncus communis(rushes).
 怎奈 tsen3 nai4, there is no remedy, no way.
 猴兒頭 hou2'r t'ou2, a monkey's head, slang Pekinese term to meaning as for instance.
 大軲轆 ta4 ku1 lu4, the big wheel.
 官板 kuan1 pan3, official stamp, stamped by the Government.
 Several terms cannot be written at all, wanting a character for them, not with standing I will venture to write them down with homophonous characters. So for instance 嘎, read ka2.
 Ex.我的這個褡連兒就剩了叫喚嘎了 uo3 ti1 che4-ko4 ta1-lien2'r ciou4[*chiou4] sheng4 la chiao4 huan4 ka2 la, "there is nothing left in my purse but noisy cash" meaning that the purse only contains two or three cash which at every step meet and ring. It is also said 古嘎 ku3 ka2.
 Ex.古嘎沒有 ku3 ka2 mei2 iou3, I have no cash. Another term is 側 ts'o2, or 側羅 ts'o2 lo2. Foreign words are sometimes used as chi1-ha1, the chinese transformation of the Manchu word jiha "money" and chao1 su1, said to be Mongol and generally used, peculiarly in the whole phrase chao1 su1 u4 kuei3, which is meant for "I have no money" and is all in Mongol.

 The autumn has set in, the autumn has set in--on the fifteenth of the eighth month the moon illumines the high palaces--crows and other birds are silent and men and houses are resting--I have seen two watchmen who went round taking the watch-tally--here, with only one wick in the lamp, I am sorry it is dark--but I am afraid to consume too much oil burning two wicks--I intend buying a candle of mutton-tallow--but, alas! I have not a single cash in the hands.

●V025-042 小五兒/小六兒/一塊冰糖/一包豆兒/小五兒愛上高/一爬爬到柳樹稍/柳樹稍枝兒軟/摔的小五兒翻了眼/小六兒直淘氣/戴上鬍子唱出戲/唱完了戲/唱熱湯/湯不涼/燙的小六兒叫親娘。

 Chinese children are given by their parents a 奶名 nai3 ming2,"milk-name" by which they are designated in the family. These milk names are numberless. A common habit in the family is to give the new born children only a number for milk name, by which number the child is called four or five, if it is the fourth or fifth son in the family. The common forms for these arithmetical names are such: A first born may be called 一子 i1-tzŭ,(the form is not much used the accent falls on the i1). The second son may be called 二哥 eur4 ko1, or 小一兒 hsiao3 i1'r. The third son may be called 三兒 san1'r, the fourth 四兒 ssŭ4'r, the fifth 五兒 u3'r, the sixth 六兒 liou4'r, and so forth as far as ten. These milk names are also given to children independently of their order in the family and become like our christian names Charles, John and so forth.
 冰糖 ping1 t'ang2, white sugar in pieces sold on the streets to children.
 一包豆兒 i1 pao1 tou4'r, a parcel of roasted beans, another delicacy for children.
 翻眼 fan1 yen3, to turn up the eyes, like a man who loses his senses and shows the white of his eyes.
 淘氣 t'ao2-ch'i4, impertinent, saucy.
 戴上鬍子 tai4 shang4 hu2 tzŭ, to put on a false beard as actors do in theaters.

 The small Five--and the small Six--with a piece of white sugar--and a parcel of beans--the small Five likes to go high up--and he climbs up to the tip of the branch of the willow tree--the tip of the willow branch is weak--and the small Five tumbles down and hurts himself so that he shows the white of his eyes.--The small Six is really impertinent--he puts on a false beard and sings an act of an opera--when he has finished singing the opera,--he drinks hot broth--the broth is not cool--and the small Six scalds himself so that the calls for his mother.
 [* judging from his translation, "唱熱湯" in the 12th phrase would be a error of "喝熱湯". 『北平歌謠』(張213-425) cited this song and revisioned the phrase as so. and also in it's version, "唱出戲" was changed to "唱齣戲". "齣" referes one scene in the opera.]

◎V026-044 小小子兒/坐門礅兒/哭着喊着要媳婦兒/要了媳婦兒作甚麽/點上燈說話兒/吹了燈作伴兒/明兒個起來梳小辮兒。

 門礅兒 men2 tun1'r, a big stone-seat placed by the side of a street door.
 喊着 han3 cho, crying loudly.

 The small boy--is sitting outside the door on the stone-seat--and weeping and wailing he wants to have a wife--when he has got a wife what will he do with her?--when the lamp is lighted he will have a chat with her--when then the lamp is out he will keep company with her--and the next morning after getting up she will comb his small pigtail.
 [* 坐門礅兒 was also written as 坐門墩. see also 平055-028.]

◎V027-045 高高山上有一家/十間房子九間塌/老頭子出來拄拐棍兒/老婆子出來就地兒擦/看家的狗兒三條腿/避鼠的貍貓短個尾巴。

 挂 chu3, to lean on a stick.
 拐棍兒 kuai3 kun4'r, a stick used by old men to lean on.
 就地兒 chiou4 ti4'r, bent to the ground(walking) as very old men do.
 擦 ts'a1, to walk painfully dragging(rubbing) the feet on the ground.
 避鼠的貓 pi4 shu3 ti1-mao1, a cat which shuns(does not catch) mice.
 貍貓 li2 mao1,the wild cat.

 On a very high mountain there lives a family--of the ten rooms in the building nine rooms are in ruin--the old man goes out leaning on a stick--and the old wife walks painfully and bent to the ground.--the dog which watches the house has only three legs--the wild cat which does not catch the mice is without a tail.
 [* variation see also 平157-083; "十間屋子九間塌…".]

◎V028-046 香香蒿子/剌剌罐兒/苦麻兒/香菜兒/喇叭喇叭花兒/翠雀兒/買我的是好漢兒/買別人的是龜蓋兒喲。

 These words are sung by Pekinese boys who want to imitate the ambulant grocer, and tell aloud the names of their wares.
 香蒿子 hsiang1 hao1 tzŭ, the Artemisia annua-the chinese make with its dry stalks a sort of vegetable rope which they burn to keep away mosquitoes.
 剌剌罐兒 la1 la1 kuan4'r, a wild grass which grows at the beginning of spring.
 苦蕒兒 or 苦菜 k'u3 ts'ai4, the sowthistle(lat.Sonchus arvensis).
 香菜 hsiang1 ts'ai4,"odorous herbs"(lat.Coriandrum sativum) the chinese use its leaves for parsley.
 喇叭花 la3 pa1 hua1,"trumpet flowers" is the white stramony(lat. Datura alba).
 翠雀兒 ts'uei4 ch'iao3'r, the larkspur(lat. Delfinium anthriscifolium).
 龜蓋兒 kuei1 kai4'r, a mild form of the common chinese insult "turtle-shell".

 Here is Artemisia annua--here is lalaqua'r grass--here are sowthistle and parsley--white stramony flowers--and larkspur--who buys my ware is a good fellow--and who buys other people's is a "turtle-shell".
 [* 剌剌罐兒, also written as 辣辣菜,拉拉罐 or 拉拉罐子. lat. Lepidium apetalum Willd. ]

◎V029-047 泥泥泥泥餑餑/泥泥泥泥人兒/老頭兒喝酒不讓人兒/買我的是個好漢兒/不買我的是個王八蛋兒。

 Chinese boys are till a certain age as busy in the manufacture of mud-pies as any other boy in foreign countries. They buy for a few cash ready-made moulds out of which they work pagodas, small fishes, turtles, and so forth. When the wares are ready and dry, the small merchants sing these verses as if they meant to sell the products of their work.
 泥餑餑 ni2 puo1 puo1,is the exact equivalent of the english "mud-pie".

 Here are mud pies--here are mud figures--the old man drinks wine and does not offer to others--who buys my ware is a good fellow--and who does not buy mine is a turtle's egg.

◎V030-048 水牛兒,水牛兒/先出犄角,後出頭/你爹你媽/給你買下燒肝兒燒羊肉。

 In all countries children have verses to address snails, and in China too, although the meaning of the verses is not to be looked for.
 水牛兒 shuei3 niu2'r, the snail.

 Snail,snail--you first show out your horns and then your head--your father and mother--will buy for you some roasted liver and roasted mutton.

◎V031-049 妞兒要喫麵/給你找老段/寛條兒細條兒/簾子棍兒來不哼哎喲/妞兒要喫肉/給你找老六/腰窩兒後腿兒/眞肥瘦來不哼哎喲/妞兒要喫梨糕/還得冰糖熬/眞酥呀眞脆呀/好大的一個塊兒呀哼哎喲/妞兒要喝豆汁兒/還得找老西兒/酸酸兒的辣辣兒的/酸黃瓜菜兒來不哼哎喲/妞兒要喫白薯/給你找老五/黃穰兒大塊兒/栗子的味兒呀哼哎喲。

 妞兒 niu1'r, girl, familiar term for 姑娘 ku1 niang2.
 喫麵 ch'ih1 mien4, to eat vermicelli. 麵 mien4 is here for 麵條兒 mien4 t'iao2'r.
 老段 Laô3 tuan4, the old man named Tuan, probably a shop-keeper.
 寛條兒 k'uan1 t'iao2'r, flat and large vermicelli.
 細條兒 hsi4 t'iao2'r, finer vermicelli.
 簾子棍兒 lien2-tzŭ3 kun4'r, another sort of vermicelli so called because of its resemblance to the bamboo sticks which are bound together to form a summer curtain.
 來不哼哎喲 lai2 pu eng a-yo, meaningless refrain.
 腰窩兒 iao1 uo1'r,"the loins nest" the best part of the loins of a mutton ar a beef.
 後腿兒 hou4 t'uei3'r, the back part of the thigh.
 眞肥瘦 chen1 fei2 shou4, "really there are both fat and lean", that is very good meat-a buyer going to the butcher's shop, if not particularly wishing to get more fat or more lean, calls the meat he wants 肥瘦 fei2 shou4 that is fat and lean together. So the phrase 你給我一斤肥瘦兒 ni3 kei3 uo3 i1 chin1 fei2 shou4'r, means "give me a pound of good meat".
 梨糕 li2 kao1, pear jam dried in slices.
 酥 su1, is said of the food and particularly of pastry, when it is so delicate that it melts in the mouth-french "fondant".
 脆 ts'uei4, crisp.
 豆汁兒 tou4 chih1'r, a decoction of seeds which is drunk in spring time and is thought a powerful agent to cool one's blood: it is mostly used
by Bannermen.
 老西兒 lao3 hsi1'r, nickname given by the Pekinese to the natives of the Shan-hsi province, who do not enjoy a very good reputation, even among Pekinese. Here they are quoted because they are generally fond of sour food as the tou4-chih1 is.
 黃瓜菜 huang2 kua1 ts'ai4, salted cucumber.
 白薯 pae2 shu3, the sweet potatoes.
 穰兒 jiang2'r, the pulp of a fruit, the stuff of a pudding, generally the interior of objects, from a cake to a clock.

 Young lady, if you want to eat vermicelli,--we will go to see the old Tuan for you,--who has flat vermicelli, and thin vermicelli--and "curtain-sticks" vermicelli--Young lady, if you want to eat meat--we will go to the old Six's for you--he has got good loin of mutton and good haunch of mutton--both fat and lean meat--Young lady, if you want to eat pear-jam--we must also boil it in white sugar--it is really melting in the mouth and so crisp!--and what a big slice of it!--Young lady, if you want to drink bean decoction--then we must go to the old Shan-hsi man's--how sour it is! how bitter it is!--and how sour the salt cucumbers taken with it--Young lady, if you want to eat sweet potatoes--we will go to the old Five's--who has there large slices of sweet potatoe pulp--which smell like chestnuts.
 [* the 2nd line was originally 給你找老叚. But Vitale read 叚(jia3 or 2) to tuan4. That is, its a error of 段.]

◎V032-052 出了門兒/陰了天兒/抱着肩兒/進茶館兒/靠爐臺兒/找個朋友尋倆錢兒/出茶館兒/飛雪花兒/老天爺/竟和窮人鬧着頑兒。

 These verses are supposed to be uttered by a beggar who complains of his bad luck on a winter's day. The song is rhymed by adding the character 兒 eur2 at the end of each verses.
 抱着肩兒 pao4 cho2 chien1'r, lit. "embracing one's shoulder" that is to keep the arms folded on the breast, as chinese beggars do when they feel cold.
 爐臺兒 lu2 t'ai2'r, a small stove made of bricks.
 尋 hsin2, means to ask something from somebody, to look for, the ordinary
sound of the character is hsün.
 老天爺 lao3 t'ien1 ye2, the old gentleman in the sky. Has no relation whatever with our religious beliefs.--the expression is a very common one but the same Chinese are the first to be puzzled when asked for meaning. It is a personification of the providence, luck, justice, and also weather, and is as undefined a word as many others in Chinese.
 雪花兒 hsüe3 hua1'r, lit.snow-flowers, snow-flakes.
 鬧着兒 nao4 cho2 uan2'r, to play with, to make sport with.

 As soon I have gone out--the weather has become cloudy--folding my arms on my breast--I enter a tea-shop--I lean against the brick stove--and look for a friend from whom I may beg some money--as I go out of the tea-shop--here snow-flakes are falling--the old gentleman in the sky--only likes to make sport with us poor people.

◎V033-053 褡連兒撘/我和褡連兒作親家/親家的姑娘會梳頭/一梳梳了個麥子熟/麥子磨成麵/芝麻磨成油/黃瓜上了架/茄子打提溜。

 The beginning of the song does not seem to have any comprehensible meaning and I can only translate it literally.
 褡連兒 ta1 lien2'r, cloth purse in which the chinese keep their banknotes, called also 錢褡連兒 ch'ien2 ta1 lien1'r, money purse. Another sort is styled 檳榔褡連兒 ping1 lang2 ta1 lien2'r, and is used for holding betel nuts, as the name shows.
 作親家 tsuo4 ch'in1 chia1, to become a relative The word ch'in1 chia1 means all relations who bear a different family name. The word is in modern Pekinese wrongly pronounced ch'in4 chia1.
 梳了個麥子熟 shu1 la1 ko4 mai4 tzŭ shou2, she has taken as much time to comb her hair, as would be required for the wheat to become ripe in the fields.
 上了架 "has grown on the bower". Cucumber plants are made creep on small bowers. 打提溜 ta3 ti1 liu1, to swing, pushed by the wind.

 The purse, the purse--I have become a relation of the purse--the purse family's girl knows how to dress her hair--and has taken as much time to comb it as is required for the wheat to get ripe--for the wheat to be ground and made into flour--for the sesamum to be ground and made into oil--for the cucumber to grow on the bowers--and for the brinjal fruit to be swung by the wind.
 [* 褡連兒撘 was also written as 褡連兒搭. 褡連兒 also wrote as 褡褳. see also V038-059,平165-087.]

◎V034-055 羅鍋子橋/一磴兒到比一磴兒高/燈籠兒閘草水皮兒漂/金魚兒咬着銀魚尾兒/大肚子的蝦蟆/哇兒呱哇兒呱的叫。

 This stanza is composed in praise of the fine scenery in the Emperor's Summer palace grounds, where the hunchbacked bridge is also to be seen.
 一磴兒 i1 teng4'r, a step in a staircase, in a flight of stairs.
 閘草 cha2 ts'ao3, grass which grows near the gatelocks, called also 燈籠兒草 teng1 lung2'r ts'ao3, "lantern grass" from its leaves being strung to a stalk like so many chinese lanterns to a rope.
 金魚兒 chin12'r, "goldfish".
 水皮兒 shuei3 p'i2'r, the surface of the water, lit."the water skin".
 銀魚兒 yin22'r, "silverfish".

 On the hunchback bridge--one step is higher than the other--under the bridge the leaves of the lantern grass float on the water--the goldfish run after the silverfish and bite their tails--and the toads with big bellies--cry kurkua kurkua.
 [* Perhaps "銀魚尾兒" would be erred from "銀魚兒尾". Firstly, it commented in illustrations as "銀魚兒", and in the variation of CMG126-139 made the same part as "金魚兒尾". "燈籠兒閘草" would be considered as Nymphoides peltata O.Kuntze. For it changed to "金絲荷葉" in the variation cited in 平027-013. ]

◎V035-056 東嶽廟/東廊下/東廊下有個墪兒/蹲着個金眼綠毛龜兒/解南來了個鬼兒/挑着一擔水兒/擱下水兒撿根棍兒/單打金眼綠毛龜兒的腿兒。

 東嶽 tung14, one of the five sacred mountains, the 泰山 t'ai4 shan1, in the Shantung province.
 墪兒 tun1'r, a small earth mound.
 Each verse ends with the character 兒 eur2, which gives fun to the song.

 In the temple of mount T'ai-shan--under the east verandah--under the east verandah there is an earth mound--on which squats a turtle with golden eyes and a shell covered with green moss--from the south has come a devil--bearing on his shoulders a load of water--he lays down the water, picks up a stick--and only strikes the legs of the turtle with golden eyes and the shell covered with moss.

●V036-057 大娘子喝酒/二娘子篩/三娘子捧過小菜碟兒來/四娘子來回的去端菜/五娘子一傍把座兒安排/他說是大家湊個團圓會/滑拳行令樂開懷。

 大娘子 ta4 niang2 tzŭ, is the wife of the first brother in the family.
 二娘子 eur4 niang2 tzŭ, is the wife of the second brother and so forth.
 篩酒 shai1 chiou3, to warm the wine before drinking it.
 捧 p'eng3, to keep on one's hands, to present, to offer.
 小菜兒 hsiao3 ts'ai4'r, salted vegetables with which the Chinese relish their food.
 端菜 tuan1 ts'ai4, to bring the food on the table.
 一傍 i p'ang, by the side, aside.
 團圓會 t'uan2 yüan2 huei4, general feast in which all the members of the family collect to dine together. This day falls on the fifteenth of the eighth month, because in that night the moon is perfectly full 團圓 t'uan2 yüan2.
 撶拳[*滑拳] hua2 ch'iüan2, to play at guessfingers, at morra.
 行令 hsing2 ling4, literary amusement. Somebody in the company begins by giving a verse or a classical phrase, and the other members of society must follow by inventing another verse or phrase with the same rhyme, or with the same parallelism of words, or the same style of allusions. The man who first exhausts his take of phrases is punished by being forced to drink a number of glasses of wine.

The first lady drinks wine--the second lady warms the wine--the third ladies come bringing in small saucers with salted cucumbers--the fourth lady at the side arranges the places(covers)--she says that every body has come for a complete meeting--to play at guessfingers, to play at allusions game, and to be merry.
 [* "二娘子篩(shai1)" was originally printed as "二娘子簁(xi3)". Many variations were expressed it as "篩(shai1)". Both meaning were almost same. Here I would change it by his note. But it was probable to the word pronounciated as xi3 in shai1's meanning. In his translation, the part of "四娘子" to "五娘子" were confused and losted. see also 平127-068,続163-076. In the version in『漢英対照 北平歌謠』(張則之 張149-297) changed the 4th phrase as "四娘子來回去端菜". But I could not decide that it was "right" revision or simply error. ‘cause the version which "的" was inserted in this phrase was only seen in Vitale’s collection.]

◎V037-058 禿子禿/上腦箍/箍出油來/煎豆腐。

 These words are sung to tease the boys, who have their hair shaven.
 箍 ku1, a whoop, an iron belt put about barrels.
 腦箍 nao3 ku1, is the name of an old instrument of torture consisting of a red hot circle of iron which was put on the head.

 You baldhead--we will hut a red hot whoop round your head--and with the oil we will press out of it--we will fry bean-cake.

◎V038-059 褡連兒撘/我和褡連兒作親家/親家的姑娘病兒沉/請了個大夫把脈診/開了個藥方兒把藥尋/開的是蚊子膽/虼蚤心/蒼蠅翅髈兒要半斤。

 The begining of this song is identical with that of song No.33.
 診脈 chen4 muo4, to feel the pulse as chinese doctors do.
 藥方 iao4 fang, medical prescription written and signed by the physician.
 蚊子 uen2 tzu, the mosquito.
 虼蚤 ko4 tsao3, the flea.
 蒼蠅 ts'ang1 ying2, the fly.

 The purse, the purse--I am now a relation of the purse family--but their daughter has grown dangerously sick--and they have called a physician who has felt her pulse--and then has written a prescription, and people have gone to buy the medicines--on the prescription there is written: mosquito's livers, flea's hearts and half a pound of flies wings.
 [* Originally 褡連兒搭 was written as 褡連兒撘 褡連兒 also wrote as 褡褳. see also V033-053,平165-087.]

◎V039-060 三兒三兒/穿的是甚撒兒/穿的是青洋縐褲子/青洋縐褲汗褟兒/梳着個牛糞&M075462;兒/左邊戴着晚香玉/右邊戴着茉莉花兒/五分底兒的雙臉兒鞋/漂白的襪子明期臉兒。

 The words are addressed to a young girl, as may be seen from the description of her dress, which follows. The slang word sa2'r, not generally known even among Pekinese, means dress, fashion, toilette. As no written character exists to represent this sound and this meaning, I have used for it the character sa 撒 which being originally in the first tone, here ought to be read in the second. Wanting to find a character for the word, it could be formed this combination &M075464; to be read sa2'r.--One of the phrases commonly heard is this 你有撒兒沒撒兒 ni3 iou3 sa2'r, mei2 sa2'r?--meaning "have you got a good dress or not?
 洋縐 yang2 chou4, crape imported by foreigners.
 汗褟兒 han4 t'a1'r, sort of cloth under-dress or shirt worn by Chinese in contact with the skin. European shirts are mostly styled 汗衫 han4 shan1.
 牛糞 niu2 fen4 "ox-dung", name for a sort of head dress, more decently
called 圓頭 yüan2 t'ou2 "round head".
 &M075462; p'ai3, character not noted in the dictionaries but mentioned by Sir T.Wade in his Tone exercises. It means "to let oneself dowm, to lie down and then to be seated, placed". Here it is used as a noun, and is referred to the chignon placed on the girl's head.
 晚香玉 uan3 hsiang14, the gem which smells in the evening, the tuberosa(lat. Polianthes tuberosa).
 五分底兒 u3-fen1 ti3'r, thick five fen. The fen is the tenth part of the ts'un, an inch. The shoe sole is called 底兒 ti3'r, or 底子 ti3 tzu. and may be as thick as five or six inches. That sort of heel which is placed sometimes in the center of the sole in ladies shoes called 花盆底兒 hua1 p'en2 ti3'r, "flower-pot heel".
 雙臉兒鞋 shuang1 lien'r hsie2, literally "two faced shoes,,are so called when two ornamental leather strings, come from under the sole on the point of the shoe.
 漂白 p'iao1 pai2, whitewashed, painted in white--the character 漂 is here vulgarly p'iao3.
 明期臉兒 ming2 ch'i lien3'r, chinese socks are so called when the seam is to be seen in the middle.

 San'r, San'r, what sort of dress have you put on?--"I have put on trousers made of foreign crape--and a shirt made of foreign crape--my hair is combed in a round chignon--on the left of it I have stuck a tuberose--and to the right a jasmine--then I have got shoes with a sole half-inch thick and with leather ornaments--and white socks with the seam to be seen outside.

◎V040-062 咩咩羊/跳花牆/抓把草/喂他娘。

 咩 mie1,the sheep's bleating.
 他娘 t'a1 niang2, the small sheep's mother.
 This is one of those little songs the mothers teach their children, when they begin to speak.

 The bleating small sheep--has jumped over the flowery wall--to catch a bunch of grass--and to feed her mother.
 [* 咩 was originally wrote as &M067165;.]

◎V041-063 大翻車/小翻車/一翻翻了個花大姐/紅裙兒/綠襖兒/丁香小脚兒/對面喝酒兒/倒像親姐兒倆。

 The beginning of this song is not clear it appears that the disposition of words in the first and in the second verse is irregular, saying 大翻車 小翻車 ta4 fan1 tch'o1[*ch'o1]-hsiao3 fan ch'o instead of 大車翻 小車翻 ta4ch'o1 fan1-hsiao3 ch'o1 fan1, meaning the big cart has overturned, the small cart has overturned. Furthermore the song speaks at the beginning of only one girl and it ends with two. That shows the song is not complete and every
cart is supposed to be occupied by a girl.
 花大姐 hua1 ta4 chie3, lit."a flowery elder sister" means, a beautiful and well dressed girl. It is also said in the same sense 花妞兒 hua1 niu1'r.
 丁香 ting hsiang, clove, very small feet are compared to grains of clove.

 A big cart has overturned--a small cart has overturned--and a very beautiful young lady has fallen out of one--(and another young lady has fallen too)--with a red petticoat--and a green overcoat--with feet as small as grains of clove--they drink wine one in front of the other--and really are very much like two sisters.

◎V042-064 高高山上一座小廟兒/裏頭坐着個神道兒/頭上戴頂羅帽兒/身上穿件外套兒/兩個小鬼喝道兒/四個小鬼擡着籐轎兒/出了門兒一遶兒/出巡回來歸廟兒。

 神道 shen2 tao4, a spirit.
 外套兒 uai4 t'ao4'r, "external cover" is a sort of long dress, worn externally.
 喝道兒 ho1 tao4'r, and also 喝道子 ho1 tao4 tzŭ, to shout before the chair of an official to make way.
 籐轎 t'eng2 chiao4, a light chair made of rattan.
 一遶兒 i jao4'r, a turn, a stroll.
 出巡 ch'u1 hsün1, to go out on a tour of inspection.

 On a very high mountain there is a small temple--and inside sits a spirit--he wears on his head a crape-hat--and wears on his body a long gown--two small devils go in front shouting for room--four small devils bear the rattan-chair--he has gone out for a stroll--to make an inspection and then returning comes back to the temple.
 [* see also V084-119,平112-059.]

◎V043-065 新打一把茶壺亮堂堂/新買一個小豬兒不喫糠/新娶一個媳婦兒不喫飯/眼淚汪汪想他親娘。

 打 ta3, to beat, to strike, to work in metal.
 亮堂堂 liang4 t'ang1 t'ang1, very bright the character 堂 is originally read in the second tone, but here is pronounced in the first.
 糠 k'ang1, husks of grain with which pigs are fed.

 A newly made metal tea-kettle is very bright--a newly bought small pig does not eat husks of grain--a newly married wife does not take food--she weeps profusely and thinks of her mother.

◎V044-066 一進門兒喜冲冲/院子裏頭搭大棚/洞房屋子把燈點/新姑娘一傍淚盈盈/新郎不住的來回觀/說你不喫點兒東西兒/我可心疼。

 This song contains a sketch of marriage ceremonies.
 喜冲冲 hsi3 ch'ung1 ch'ung1 very merrily and with much noise. The character 冲 ch'ung means to shake, to dash against, but here it is only used to mean confusion, hurry, disorder.
 洞房 tung4 fang2, the bridal room.
 淚盈盈 lei4 ying1 ying, with many tears.
 盈盈 ying1 ying, flowing, in great quantity, said of tears. The character 盈 is here in the first tone, but its regular tone is the second, and ought to be read ying2.
 新郎 hsin1 lang2, the bridegroom.
 不住的 pu4 chu4 ti, without interruption.
 來回 lai2 huei2, repeatedly.

 Entering the gate, how merry it is!--in the courtyard they have raised a big shed--in the bridal room the lamp is lighted--the bride in a corner is weeping bitterly--the bridegroom repeatedly calls to her--and says: if you do not take some food--my heart will ache.

◎V045-067 和尚和尚搖鈴鐺/嘚兒&M004263;唩喝我騎上/騎到那兒去/騎到天邊兒去。

 This song is repeated by boys to ridicule the buddhist priests who go round begging, and read their sacred books shaking a small bell. They are therefore compared to asses and mules which are similarly provided with bells.
 鈴鐺 ling2 tang1, a small bell--
 旦兒搭[*嘚兒&M004263;] pronounce törta, a peculiar voice to get the mule, or the ass to walk. There are of course no characters for it and those written above not only are completely arbitrary, but do not exactly correspond to the pronunciation. The same is to be said for the word 倭喝[*唩喝] uo-ho,which has the same meaning.

 Oh the bonze, the bonze is shaking the bell--go ahead! I will ride him--ride how far?--as far as the boundary of the sky.

●V046-068 小回回兒/怎麽那麽奸/四兩豬肉約半天/左嫌少右嫌少/抱着豬頭往家跑。

 These words are sung to insult Mohammedans who are not allowed to eat pork.
 左右 tsuo3 iuo4, right and left (the Chinese right hand being the European left hand). Means now and now, several times, repeatedly.

 The small Mohammedan--how deceitful is he!--to buy only four ounces of pork, he is weighing for a good half-day--now he complains it is little and then he complains again it is little--then folding in his arms a pig's head he runs home.
 [* "左嫌少右嫌少" originally printed as "左嫌小右嫌少". variation see also 平129-069: "小回子兒,怎那麽奸…". ]

◎V047-069 一呀二呀/倒打連三棍兒/花棍兒五/銅錢數/鏨鏨兒六/銀錠兒七/花花打打兩丈一/兩甚麽兩/二馬掌/二甚麽二/雙夾棍兒/雙甚麽雙/虎扛槍/虎甚麽虎/牛皮鼓/牛甚麽牛/磕郎毬/磕甚麽磕/燕子窩/燕甚麽燕/扯花線/扯甚麽扯/孫臏扯/孫甚麽孫/呂洞賓/呂甚麽呂/瘸枴兒李/瘸甚麽瘸/竈王爺/竈甚麽竈/城隍廟/城甚麽城/肚兒疼/肚甚麽肚/搖葫蘆/搖甚麽搖/雪花兒瓢/雪甚麽雪/孫猴兒倒打豬八戒。

 Chinese children practice a game which is also known by boys in foreign countries. Two boys sit one facing the other and strike first their own hands together and then each other's. To keep measure with the movement they mark, the time with these words, which are meaningless, and are huddled together only for the sake of the final rhymes. The game is called 打花掌巴 ta3 hua1 pa1 chang3.
 呀 ya1, is purely phonetic and meaningless.
 倒打 tao4 ta3, to strike alternately--here the character 倒 is pronounced in the fourth and not in the third tone.
 連三棍兒 lien2 san1 kun4'r, uninterruptedly three sticks(that is to say three blows).
 數 in the third tone shu3, means to calculate, to reckon.
 鏨 tsan, to carve, to chisel.
 鏨子 tsan4 tzŭ, a chisel.
 銀錠 yin2 ting4, an ingot of silver.
 夾棍兒 chia1 kun4'r, an instrument of torture to squeeze the ankles lit. squeezing sticks.
 磕郎毬 k'o1 lang1 ch'iu2 I cannot find any explanation of this. The Chinese say that they do not know the meaning of the word. All that I could get from them is that the vulgar word k'o-lang'r, means a corner, and is used instead of the more common 噶拉兒 ka1-la2'r(written according to Sir Thomas Wade's manner). The word ch'iu2 is a ball. Could it be an "empty ball"?--
 孫臏 Sun1-pin1 a remarkable minister in the old state of Jen: generally known by all children.
 呂洞賓 Lü3 tung4 pin1, one of the eight genii.
 鐵枴李 t'ie3 kuai3 li3, another of the eight genii, a lame man called also: 瘸枴李 ch'üe2 kuai3 li3,
 竈王爺 tsao4 uang2 ye2, The god of the cooking stoves, familiar chinese god to whom a sacrifice is offered the 23th day of the twelfth moon. The god is said to have a wife called 竈王奶奶 tsao4 uang2 nai2 nai3 she is worshipped in chinese families, but not in the shops, in which only the Tsao-uang is worshipped.
 城隍廟 ch'eng2 huang2 miao4, the tutelar god of chinese cities.
 搖葫蘆 iao2 hu2 lu2, to shake a pumpkin, one of the favourite amusements of chinese babies, who are very often seen deeply absorbed in shaking a small calabash.
 孫猴兒 Sun1 hou2'r, the monkey traveller in the novel 西遊記 Hsi1-yu2-chi4, Re-collections of wanderings in the west countries.
 豬八戒 chu1 pa1 chie4, a pig spoken of in the same novel as lazy and uxorious and therefore severely beaten by the monkey who was in charge of his education.
 These notions although taken from a novel in literary style, yet are generally known by the people, that have besides many ditties and rhymes on the subject.

 One, two--let us strike alternately three blows--five flowery sticks--count the cash--six chisels--seven ingots of silver--let us strike as long as two chang and one foot(!)--two, what two?--two horses shoes--two, what two?--a pair of squeezing sticks--a pair, what pair?--the tiger bears a gun on its shoulders--tiger, what tiger?--a drum covered with ox skin--ox, what ox?--an empty ball(?)--K'o4, what K'o4?--a swallow's nest--swallow, what swallow?--pull the flowery thread--pull,what pull?--Sun pin pulls--Sun,what Sun?--Lü3-tung4 pin--Lü3,what Lü3?--The lame genius Ch'üe2 kuai3'r li3--Ch'üe2,what ch'üe?--The god of the cooking stoves.--Stove,what stove?--The god protector of the city--City,what city?--The belly aches--belly, what belly?--shake the pumpkin--shake,what shake?--Snow flakes are whirling round--snow, what snow?--The monkey Sun1 Chu1-po1-chie4,
[* In other variation,"磕郎毬(ke1-lang2-qiu2)" was also said as "磕龍球(ke-long-qiu)". I think they were said "克朗球(ke4lang3qiu2)"--originally means a game like billiard which use Chinese chess-men instead of balls, children play it with two stone balls make one set. ]

◎V048-072 打花巴掌的正月正/老太太愛逛個蓮花兒燈/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的二月二/老太太愛喫個白糖棍兒/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的三月三/老太太愛喫個關東煙/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的四月四/老太太喫魚不摘刺/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的五月五/老太太愛喫個生白薯/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的六月六/老太太愛喫個白煮肉/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的七月七/老太太愛喫個白煮雞/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的八月八/老太太愛喫個白燉鴨/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的九月九/老太太愛喫個白花藕/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮/打花巴掌的十月一/老太太愛喫個雪花梨/燒着香兒念着佛兒/茉莉茉莉花兒串枝蓮。

 This song, like the last one is also sung by boys when playing at 打花巴掌 ta3 hua1 pa1 chang3.
 正月正 cheng1 yüe4 cheng1, the first moon.
 蓮花燈 lien2 hua1 teng1, Lantern made of paper and shaped like a lotus flower.
 逛燈 kuang4 teng1, means to go out on the streets to look at the different shows of lanterns exhibited during five days, from the thirteenth to the seventeenth in the first month in the year. The regular day for the show is the 15th on which falls the 燈節 teng1 chie2 feast of lanterns.
 念着佛 nien4 cho Fuo2, uttering prayers before Buddha.
 串枝蓮 c'huan4 chih1 lien2, a wild flower not unlike the lotus.
 This refrain is repeated at every couplet. We translate it only once.
 白糖棍兒 pai2 t'ang2 kun4'r, small sugar sticks bought by children.
 關東煙 kuan1 tung1 yen1, tobacco from Manchuria, the best quality of tobacco.
 摘刺 chai2 tz'u4, to take away the bones from a fish.
 生白薯 sheng1 pai2 shu3, uncooked sweet potato.
 燉鴨 tun4 ya1, a stewed duck.
 白花藕 pai2 hua1 ou3, a flour made from the root-stock of the lotus.
 雪花梨 hsüe3 hua1 li2, sort of very good pears found in Shantung, whose pulp is said to be as white as flakes of snow.

 Strike the hands. in the first month of the year--the old lady likes to go out to look at the lotus-lanterns--burning incense and saying prayers--with jasmines,jasmines and wild lotus--Strike the hands, the second day of the second moon--the old lady likes to eat sugar sticks--Strike the hands,the third day of the third moon--the old lady likes to smoke Manchurian tobacco. Strike the hands,the fourth day of the fourth moon--the old lady likes to eat fish without taking the bones away.--Strike the hands,the fifth of the fifth moon--the old lady likes to eat raw yams--strike the hands,the sixth day of the sixth moon--the old lady likes to eat boiled pork--strike the hands,the seventh day of the seventh moon--the old lady likes to eat a boiled chicken with no sauce--strike the hands,the eighth day of the eighth moon--the old lady likes to eat stewed duck--strike the hands,the ninth day of the ninth moon--the old lady likes to eat lotus root flour--strike the hands,the first day of the tenth moon--the old lady likes to eat snow-white pears.

◎V049-076 打羅兒篩/曳羅兒篩/麥子熟了請你的伯/你伯愛喫肉兒的/你叔愛喫豆兒的。

 These words are not heard within the walls of Peking, but in the country.
 羅兒 luo2'r a sift to bolt flour.
 曳 ye4, to drag, to pull, to shake.
 伯 read by the peasants not puo2 but pai1, one's father's elder brother. This character is read also pai3, in the word 大伯子 ta4 pai3 tzu, title given to a man by his younger brother's wife.
 叔 shu2 read here shou2 as the peasants do. One's fater's younger brother.

 Beating the sieve sift!--shaking the sieve sift!--when the wheat is ripe, we will invite your uncle--your elder uncle likes to eat meat--your younger uncle likes to eat beans.

◎V050-077 一副筐/八根兒繩/挑起了扁擔遊九城/賣葱阿/賣蒜兒阿/賣青菜阿/打鼓兒/喝雜銀錢兒/唉首飾來賣。

 These words are sung by children to imitate the perambulating vendors in the street.
 一副筐 i1 fu4 k'uang1 a pair of baskets hanging from the pole called 扁擔 pien3 tan.
 八根兒繩 pa1 ken1'r sheng2, eight strings. As every basket is attached to an end of the pole by four strings, so eight strings comes to mean a porter's pole and more generally every sort of small chinese industry practiced by
vendors furnished with such a pole.
 九城 chiu3 ch'eng2, the nine cities, the city of Peking.
 青菜 ch'ing1 ts'ai4 every sort of green vegetable.
 After speaking of the vendors of vegetables the song comes to speak of curious sort of small industry practiced in Peking. Two men go together. One marches forward and beats a little drum, the other bearing on the shoulder a pole with baskets calls loudly for people who are willing to sell silver head-ornaments, or other small objects of value. This proceeding is called 喝雜銀錢 ho1 tsa2 yin2 ch'ien2, to call for different(and bad quality) silver to buy them for ready money.

 With a pair of baskets--are provided all the small pedlars--with pole and baskets they go all over the city--to sell onions--to sell garlic--to sell green vegetables--the man who beats the drum--and the other who cries: I buy objects of silver--ohe,(who has got) head ornaments let him come and sell.

◎V051-078 翻餅烙餅/油炸餡兒餅/翻過來瞧瞧。

 Chinese boys playing together take each other by the hands and then turn round without separating the hands. The movement of turning round is likened to the action of turning a pie on the pan, and so this game is called 翻餅烙餅 fan1 ping3 lao4 ping3.
 烙餅 lao4 ping3, to cook a pie.
 油炸 iu2-cha2, fried in the oil.

 Turn the pie, cook the pie--the pie with stuffing fried in oil--turn it round and let us sel.
 [* See also CMG128-141,続104-053.]

◎V052-079 高高山上一落磚兒/磚兒上坐着個老太太兒/三根頭髮馬尾纂兒/一心要戴涼涼簪兒。

 一落磚兒 i1 luo4 chuan1'r, a pile of bricks.
 馬尾纂兒 ma3 i3 tsan3'r, sort of sham chignon made of the hair of a horse tail.
 一心 i1 hsin1, she has no other thought but, compare latin "toto corde".
 涼涼簪兒 summer hair-pins during the summer ladies are supposed to lay aside silver-pins and to wear jade pins and also jade bracelets and rings. People who cannot afford to buy jade pins, get for a trifling sum pins made of grass, imitating the jade. These last are called liang2 liang2 tsan1'r.

 On a very high mountain there is a pile of bricks.--On the bricks there is sitting an old lady--with three hairs and false horse-tail chignon--and she only thinks that she wants to wear summer pins on her hair.

◎V053-080 厚底兒鞋/帮兒窄/我到娘家走一百/哥哥說炕上坐/嫂子說炕不熱/哥哥說搬板凳/嫂子說搬不動/哥哥說搬椅子/嫂子說沒腿子/哥哥說給妹妹點兒錢/嫂子說還半年/哥哥說給妹妹點兒米/嫂子說還不起/我也不喫你們的飯/我也不喝你們的酒/瞧瞧親娘我就走/出門兒遇見個大黃狗/撕了我的裙兒/咬了我的手/忍心的哥哥出來打打狗。

 Chinese wives are allowed from time to time to visit their old family, and to stay there for some days. Here this song depicts the grief of a wife who goes to visit her mother, arrived there she meets with her brother who treats her well and with her sister-in-law who hates her. The words are simple and touching.
 厚底兒鞋 hou4 ti3'r hsie2, shoes with a thick heel.
 帮兒窄 pang1 eur chai3, the heel-band is narrow, and therefore it is painful to walk. Pang1eur is "the leather heel band of a shoe, for strengthening the back of shoe"(Giles).
 娘家 niang2 chia1, a wife's family.
 走一百 tsou3 i4 pai3 I walk a hundred, it is understood 里地 li3 ti4, chinese miles. The k'ang4, chinese brick bed is warmed during winter by fuel.
 板凳 pan3 teng4, a wooden stool.
 還半年 huan2 pan4 nien2, it may be understood so "to give her a little money we shall borrow it and then we shall not be able to repay it back until after a good half-year".
 還不起 huan2 pu4 ch'i3, in the same meaning, we shall not be able to give it back to the person who lends the rice to us. The expression pu4 ch'i3 following the verb, that verb acquires a negative potential meaning, as not to be able to...or better corresponding to the Chinese, "not to be up to..."
 忍心 jen3 hsin1, these words are a reproach to the brother, meaning you who may tolerate in your heart that I suffer so much, meaning that the brother after all his good intentions lets his wife do as she likes.

 With high-heeled shoes--and narrow heel-bands--I walk a hundred li to arrive at my home,--My elder brother says: Sit on the k'ang4--my sister-in-law says: the k'ang is not warm--my elder brother says: bring here a wooden stool--my sister-in-law says: it can not be brought round--my elder brother says: bring here a chair; my sister-in-law says:the chair has no legs--my elder brother says: give your younger sister some money--the sister-in-law says: we would take half a year to pay it back--my elder brother says: give your younger sister a little rice--the sister-in-law says, we could not give it back to the lender--But I will not eat your rice--and I will not drink your wine--I will only see my mother and then go away--going out of the gate I have met with a big yellow dog--that has torn my apron--and has bitten my hand--My patient elder brother, come out and beat the dog!

●V054-083 杜梨兒樹/開白花/養活丫頭作甚麽/拿起剪子瞎嘎搭/嘎搭會了給人家/爹也哭/娘也哭/女婿過來勸丈母/丈母丈母你別哭/我家還有二斗穀/碾小米兒/熬豆粥/餓不死你的禿丫頭。

 These words are sung to small girls by their parents. The first two verses have nothing to do with the rest, but, as a girl is the subject of the song, they fit very well.
 杜梨兒 tu4 li4'r, a pear with small fruit(Pyrus betulaefolia).
 瞎嘎 搭 hsia1 ka2 ta1, familiar expression, it means to make noise using a pair of scissors and without good effect, and it is said of the small girls who begin to learn how to cut the cloth to make dresses of it. Hsia1 originally means blind, and then irregularly, badly as a blind man could do.
 給人家 kei3 jen2 chia1, they give(the parents) her to people, that is to say they get her married.
 豆兒粥 tou4'r chou, a gruel made of rice and beans.
 禿丫頭 t'u1 ya1 t'ou2 bald-headed servant, title given in the family to small girls, who are generally called by their parents ya1 huan2 or 丫頭 ya1 t'ou2.
 餓不死 ngo4 pu4 ssu3, negative potential form, she cannot be starved to death.

 The small pear-tree--has opened its white flowers--to bring to light a small girl--what is the use of it?--she begins first to take the scissors and to cut badly the cloth--then when she has learned to cut the cloth, one must give her up to other people--the father also weeps--the mother also weeps--the bridegroom comes over to console his mother-in-law--and says: mother-in-law, mother-in-law, do not weep--I have got at home three pecks of grain--we will grind the oats--and boil a rice congee with beans--so that your bald-headed daughter shall not be starved to death.
 [* 二斗穀 would be also seen as an error of 三斗穀. 'Cause he translated it as "three pecks of grain". ]

◎V055-084 紅葫蘆/軋腰兒/我是爺爺的肉姣兒/我是哥哥的親妹子/我是嫂子的氣包兒/爺爺爺爺賠甚麽/大箱大櫃賠姑娘/奶奶奶奶賠甚麽/針線笸籮兒賠姑娘/哥哥哥哥賠甚麽/花布手巾賠姑娘/嫂嫂嫂嫂賠甚麽/破罈子/爛罐子/打發那丫頭嫁漢子。

 The words are supposed to be said by a small girl.
 紅葫蘆 hung2 hu2 lu2, red pumpkin the boys who have not enough money to buy playthings, content themselves with pumpkins which they go whirling about.
 軋腰兒 ya4 yao1'r, "with crushed sides" is the name of a sort of pumpkin shaped in the form of two balls placed one on the other. Cutting this pumpkin in the middle one has two cups. As to the relation between these words to what follows, I suppose the girl speaks of herself as of a precious little thing, because that kind of pumpkin is sometimes appreciated by the Chinese who buy the smallest for two or three taels, and wear them on the body as an ornament.
 肉姣兒 jou4 chiao1'r, lit "my flesh dear", an endearing term for a little girl, meaning to say: you are my own flesh and blood.
 氣包兒 ch'i4 pao1'r, curious express on said of a person who has the privilege of irritating somebody constantly. The literal translation would be "the wrath-bundle".
 The small girl speaks so because it is generally admitted and practiced in chinese families that the elder brother's wife carries on continual warfare with her sisters-in-law. Afterwards the girl pretends to want to know what their relations will give her on her wedding day. To give cadeaux to a bride to form her dowry is called 賠 p'ei2, or more completely 賠送 p'ei2 sung1. 奶奶 one's father's mother. The bannermen call nai3 nai3 a mother.
 針線笸籮 chen1 hsien4 puo3 luo2, a basket where needles, pin, thread, scissors are kept and everything else required for ladies' work.
 姑娘 ku1-niang2, is here used instead of the personal pronoun thou or you.
 罈子 t'an1 tzŭ, a big bottle to contain salt vegetables, water and also coal.
 罐子 kuan4-tzŭ, other sort of vessel made of porcelain or of earthenware.
 嫁漢子 chia4 han4 tzŭ to marry a husband, a man. Here it would perhaps be better to translate " a fellow" as the woman's words are not inspired with friendly feelings altogether.

 The red pumpkin--has crushed sides--I am my grandfather's "own dear flesh and blood"--I am my brother's "carnal sister"--and I am my sister-in-law's "bundle of wrath"--grandfather, grandfather,what will you give me at my marriage?--"I will give you a big chest and a big wardrobe"--"Grandmother,grandmother,what will you give me?"--"I will give you a work basket"--"Elder brother,elder brother,what will you give me?"--"I will give you a fancy cloth towel"--Sister-in-law, sister-in-law, what will you give me?"--"A broken jar--and a smashed bottle--and send you, that girl, away to marry a fellow".

◎V056-087 樹葉兒黑/呀呀喲子煤/小黑兒長的像李逵/咨着牙兒瞪着眼兒/手裏揝着個黑鞭桿兒/騎着黑牛兒/喫着個黑麵餅兒/一上上在山頂兒。

 These words are sung to a children of a brown complexion. The second verse is simply a refrain with no meaning.
 小黑兒 hsiao3 hei1'r, nickname given to a brown child. The word hei1 contains all the shades of colour from black to brown.
 李逵 Li3 k'uei2, a celebrated brigand in the Sung dynasty, who was a brown complexion. He is spoken of in the Novel 水滸 shuei3 hu3. His nickname was 黑旋風 hei1hsüan2 feng1, the black whirlwind.
 咨着牙 tzŭ1 cho1 ya2, showing the teeth.

 The tree-leaves are dark--yaya yüetzu mei--the small brown boy is very like Li-k'uei--showing his teeth and starting--he garops in his hand a black whip-stick--he rides on a black ox--eats a cake made of black flour--and going up he gets as far as the mountain summit.

◎V057-088 荆條棍兒/用處兒多/編了柳斗兒/編笸籮/笸籮倒比柳斗兒大/管着柳斗兒叫哥哥。

 荆 ching1 is instead of 荆蒿花 ching1 hao1 hua1, the Vitex incisa, with stems of which baskets are woven.
 柳斗 liou3 tou3, a measure made of willow branches sometimes it made of Vilex stems, but it is even then called a "willow-peck".
 管着 kuan3-cho1, with regard to, giving a denomination.
 荆條棍兒 ching1 t'iao2 kun4'r stems of Vitex.

 The stems of the Vitex incisa--are fit for many uses--one may make of it a "willow-peck"--and one may make of it a basket--the basket is indeed larger than the willow-peck--and calls the willow peck "elder brother".

◎V058-089 鐵蠶豆/大把兒抓/娶了個媳婦兒就不要媽/要媽就耍叉/耍叉就分家。

 The first two verses with which the song begins are called 頭子 t'ou2 tzĭ "head". They do not seem to have here any relation with the meaning of the following words. The song speaks about some cases in which new-married men forget the duty of obedience to their own mother, and want to set up a family by themselves. The words are ironical and there is in them a sense of reproach and grief.
 鐵 t'ie3, iron, here "as hard as iron".
 蠶豆 ts'an2 tou4, broad beans, which are sold to children on the streets for modest sum of a ta for a handful.
 大把兒 ta4 pa3'r, a big handful.
 耍叉 shua3 ch'a1, to fight with a pronged stick, metaph. for "to quarrel".
 分家 fen1 chia1, to set up an autonomous family, to separate from old stock.

 Broad beans as hard as iron--to be had in big handfuls--after having married a wife, then he does not want his mother--if he wanted his mother then they would quarrel--and if they quarrelled, then he ought to separate from the old house.

◎V059-090 娶媳婦兒的/門口兒過/宮燈戳燈十二個/旗鑼傘扇跕兩傍/八個鼓手奏細樂/轎子擡着姑娘走/擡到婆家的大門口/進門兒入洞房/去會小新郎/娶了三年並二載/丫頭小子沒處兒擺。

 娶媳婦兒的 ch'ü3 hsi2 fu4'r ti, the person who go to fetch the bride and take her to the bridegroom's house. A marriage procession.
 宮燈 kung1 teng1, "palace lanterns" a sort of lanterns taken in hand by people in the marriage cortege. They are made with silk, or glass doors, and have no lighted candles in them.
 戳燈 ch'uo1 teng1, another kind of lanterns fixed on a long stick, which may be stuck in the ground.
 鼓手 ku3 shou3, literally "drum-hands" general name for all musicians who accompany the bride-chair. Some beat drums, other play on a sort of trumpet called 鎖吶 suo3 na1. These men are also called 吹鼓手的 ch'ui1 ku3 shou3 ti.
 奏樂 tsou4 yüe4, to play solemn music.
 細樂 hsi4 yüe4, a concert, a supposed harmony produced by different instruments.
 婆家 p'uo chia1, mother-in-law, mother-in-law's family, in the husband's family.
 小新郎 hsiao3 hsin1 lang2, the young bridegroom.
 二載 two years.
 三年並二載 san1 nien2 ping4 eur4 tsai3, a curious expression to mean 5 years.

 The bridal procession--passed by the gate--there are twelve "palace lanterns" and "fixed lanterns"--banners, gongs,umbrellas,fans are on each side--eight musicians produce music--the chair which contains the girl passes on--and brings her as far as her mother-in-law's family house-gate--she enters the door and goes into the bridal room--she goes to stay with her young bridegroom--after having married her these five years there are so many babies and girls that there is no more room in the house for them.

◎V060-092 喜雀尾巴長/娶了媳婦兒不要娘/媽媽要喫窩兒薄脆/沒有閑錢補笊籬/媳婦兒要喫梨/備上驢/去趕集/買了梨/打了皮/媳婦兒媳婦兒你喫梨。

 This song is inspired by the same feeling as song No 58.
 窩兒薄脆 uo1'r pao2 ts'uei4, sort of very hard and cheap cake.
 笊籬 chao4 li2, a big spoon made of willow stems and used to take food out of the pan. The current phrase "we have no idle money to mend the willow spoon" means that a person has no intention of spending money for useless things, as would be to mend a willow spoon.
 打皮 ta3 p'i2, to peel a fruit.

 The magpie has a long tail--after he has taken a wife he no more wants his mother--when his mother wants to eat some cheap cake--then (he says)"there is no idle money to mend willow spoons"--when his wife wants to eat pears--then he gets ready his ass--and goes to the market--when he bought the pears--he peels them--and asks wife, wife, will you eat pears?

◎V061-093 小禿兒/長樣兒/你媽養活一對雙棒兒/多大了/會走咧/你媽肚子裏又有咧。

 These words are addressed by one boy to another in a joking way.
 小禿子 hsiao3 t'u1'r, the small baldhead, the boy, used here instead of the personal pronoun "you".
 長樣兒 chang3 yang4'r, he is grown up, lit. "his figure has grown".
 養活 yang3 huo2, to bear of women it means also to nourish, to give food.

 雙棒兒 shuang1 pang4'r, twins, in literary language they are called 雙生 shuang1 sheng1.

 You small bald-heads--are grown up--your mother has born a couple of twins--how old are they?--"they can walk"--"your mother is again in the family way".

◎V062-094 花紅柳綠線兒/又買針兒/又買線兒/又買王媽媽褲腿帶兒。

 These words are for young girls who want to begin to work early with needle and thread.
 花紅 hua1 hung2, as red as red flowers are.
 柳綠 liou34, as green as willow-trees are 褲腿帶兒 k'u4 t'uei3
tai4'r, cloth bands used by women to bind the trousers to their ankles.

 I want red thread as red as red flowers and green thread as green as green willows--and I want to buy needles--and to buy more thread--and to buy ankle-bands for mother Wang.
 [* Vitale did not mentioned, but I think this words would be used in the girl's game,now calls 賣大布. A chapbook was cited in『北平俗曲略』p.114,titled「訓妻」,there already seen a name of "化花紅柳線兒" as a childsh game. see also CMG013-020, 続112-056.]

◎V063-095 糊糊/糊狗肉嘔/大鍋裏香/二鍋裏臭/請王媽媽來喫狗肉嘔。

 Dog meat is a much appreciated dish in China.
 The character 糊 hu2, is used here in want of another, and is pronounced hu1, in the first tone. It means a special chinese way of preparing meat, by smearing it with sauce and then having it roasted in a pan. There is in the western city a restaurant called 狗肉居 kou3 jou4 chü1, where roasted dog
meat is provided for "amateurs".
 嘔 ou4, phonetic character with no meaning here.

 Roast, roast--roast dog meat, oh!--the first pan smells--and the second pan stinks--I beg mother Wang to come and eat dog meat, oh!

◎V064-096 禿禿鍤/光光鍤/廟裏的和尚無頭髮/你撂磚兒/我撂瓦兒/單打和尚的禿光把兒。

 Chinese boys do not show much reverence towards the priests, for whom they always have a ready collection of songs, epigrams and epithets.
 One of the general names with which Buddhist priests are gratified is 禿驢 t'u1 lu2, a bald ass.
 鍤 ch'a1, small cymbals used as toys there is no character for the word and I used, in fault of better, this character its original tone however is the first. As these cymbals are very bright and shining, the
pates of bonzes are likened to them.
 禿光把兒 t'u1 kuang1 pan3'r, a bald and shining pate.

 Bald bald cymbals--shining, shining cymbals the bonzes in the temple have no hair--you fling bricks and I fling tiles--only to strike the bonzes' bald pates.

◎V065-097 煤模兒,炒豆兒/杜梨子,咕咕&M075467;兒  

 Coal dust is mixed up with sand and water and then put into small wood square boxes, out of which the coal comes in the form of a small brick. This sort of coal is called 煤鹻兒 mei2 chien3'r. When pekinese boys are so lucky as to get hold of one of those wood-boxes called 煤模兒 mei2 mu2'r, they put inside of it all their small property, as toys, or food.
 咕咕&M075467;兒, ku1 ku1 tiu1'r, seeds of dates.

 (In) the coal-mould--(there are) roast beans--small pears--and date seeds.

◎V066-098 丫頭丫/會看家/偸老米/換芝麻/芝麻細/油&M075478;蜜/棗兒糕/熱火燒/撐的丫頭叫姥姥。

 油&M075478;蜜 iu2 cha2 mi4, sort of sweet cake made of flower, sugar and honey, and then fried in oil.
 棗兒糕 tsao3'r kao, pudding of date jam.
 火燒 huo3 shao1, "roasted on the fire" name of a cake.
 撐的 ch'eng1 ti, with a full of stomach from having eaten too much.

 The small girl--knows how to watch the house--she steals old rice--and barters it for sesamum seeds--the sesamum seeds are small--(and then) a sweet cake--a date-pudding--and a roasted cake--the small girl feels so overeaten that she calls for her grandmother.
 [* Perhaps &M075478; was a temporary letter of 炸 or 渣. So now 油&M075478;蜜 would be written as 油炸蜜 or 油渣蜜, if it printed in the dictionary.]

●V067-098 玲瓏塔/塔玲瓏/玲瓏寶塔十三層/塔前有座廟/廟内有老僧/老僧當方丈/徒弟有六名/一個叫青頭愣/一個叫愣頭青/一個是僧僧點/一個是點點僧/一個奔葫蘆把/一個把葫蘆奔/青頭愣會打磬/愣頭青會捧笙/僧僧點會吹管/點點僧會撞鐘/奔葫蘆把會說法/把葫蘆奔會念經。

 玲瓏 ling2 lung2, elegant, pleasant, smart.
 老僧 lao3 seng1, an old buddhist priest.
 方丈 fang1 chang4,the abbot in a buddhist monastery.
 徒弟 t'u2 ti4,pupils who are supposed to learn the law and read the sacred books to become priest afterwards.
 青頭愣 ch'ing1 t'ou2 leng4, expression impossible to translate it is applied by Chinese in a despising sense to different objects, as for instance to an unripe fruit, or to a scorpion.
 磬 ch'ing4 a musical stone used as a bell.
 笙 sheng1, a sort of pipe.
 捧笙 p'eng3 sheng1, to hold the sheng near the mouth by the two hands, that is to say, to play the sheng.
 管 kuan3, the flute.
 撞鐘 chuang4 chung1, to strike the bell chinese bells are not provided with a clapper, but are struck from outside by means of a wood truncheon hanging by cords at a small distance from the bell.
 說法 shuo1 fa4, to speak about the law, to recite a pious sermon.

 How elegant is the pagoda!--how the pagoda is elegant!--the elegant pagoda has thirteen stores--before the pagoda there is a temple--in the temple there is an old bonze--the old bonze acts as abbot--and has by himself six pupils--one is called--Ch'ing1 t'ou2 leng4.--one is called Leng4 t'ou2 ch'ing1--one is Seng1 seng1 tien3--one is Tien3 tien3 seng1--one is P'en1-hu2-lu2-pa4--one is Pa4-hu2-lu2-pen1--Ch'ing1 t'ou2 leng4 can strike the musical stone--Leng4 t'ou2 ch'ing1 can play the pipe--Seng1-seng1-tien3 can play the flute--Tien3 tien3 seng1 can strike the bell--P'en1-hu2-lu2-pa4 can recite a sermon--and Pa4-hu2-lu2-pen1 can read the sacred books.

●V068-100 雉雞翎/抱馬城/馬城開/丫頭小子送馬來。

 The military officers in the preceding dynasties used to wear on their hats feathers of the ringed pheasant(Phasianus torquatus) called 雉雞翎 chih4 chi1 ling2. The boys of the present day like to ape these old fashions and stick on their hats some cock feathers, which they suppose to be those of the pheasant. Then some of them have a pasteboard horse's head, and horse's rump the first they tie to the stomach, the other to the back, and their
infantile imagination is quite satisfied, as they gallop here and there singing these verses the meaning of which is very doubtful. The pasteboard horse has inside a frame of bamboo sticks and is called 竹馬 chu2 ma3.

 With ringed pheasant feathers--I gallop to the horse city--the city opens the gate--and girls and boys come out leading a horse for me.
 [* "抱" would be mis-print of "跑."]

◎V069-101 藍靛廠/四角兒方/宮門口緊對着六郎莊/羅鍋兒橋怎麽那麽高/香山跑馬好熱鬧/金山銀山萬壽山/皇上求雨黑龍潭。

 This song has no other aim then that of collecting names of places in Peking and near Peking.
 藍靛廠 lan2 tien4 ch'ang3 the indigo factory, name of a place near Ta-chung-ssu the ground is now occupied by military quarters for bannermen.
 宮門口 kung1 men2 k'ou3, is the name of a street near the P'ing-tse-men.
 六郎莊 liu4 lang2 chuang1 "the Liou4 lang2's" farm. A place to the South of Yüan2-ming2-yüan2[*圓明園]. As a matter of fact the Kung1 men2 k'ou3 street and this farm cannot face one another because the street is inside of the city and the farm is in the Hai3-tien4.
 羅鍋橋 luo2 kuo1 ch'iao2, the hunchbacked bridge in Yuan2-ming2-yüan2(see song No.34).
 香山 hsiang1 shan1 "Perfumed mountains" hills near Peking.
 跑馬 p'ao3 ma3, the place in which military men train themselves to shoot arrows whilst galloping on horseback.
 金山 chin1 shan1, gold mountain, name of another hill in the neighbourhood of Peking.
 萬壽山 uan4 shou4 shan1, a favourite imperial villa on a hill near Peking. It was once permissible to visit the grounds but now foreigners are no longer admitted.
 求雨 ch'iu23 to pray for rain, as the Emperor in times of drought does himself or by deputy, according to the gravity of the situation.
 黑龍潭 hei1 lung2 t'an1, a temple near Peking, so called because in its grounds there is a pool where a black dragon is supposed to live. The Temple is a Government one and in time of drought imperial kins are sent there to pray for rain. In this small song there is no syntaxis the names are huddled together without distinction or explanation. The last phrase in order to express correctly the sense, ought to say in the simplest form 皇上為求雨遣官到黑龍潭 huang2 shang4 wei4 ch'iu23 ch'ien3 kuan1 tao4 hei1 lung2 t'an1. The chinese original phrase could however be translated "and the temple of Hei-lung-t'an where the Emperor(goes to pray for rain or) sends people to pray for rain. As a matter of fact from ch'ien2 lung2 till now no Emperor has gone there in person to pray for rain. He prays now for it in the 大高殿 ta4 kao1 tien4, the very high hall, in the interior of the Palace.

◎V070-103 風來咯/雨來咯/老和尚背了鼓來咯。

 When a storm is coming on with wind, rain, and thunders Pekinese boys say these words. The thunder is supposed to be produced by the striking of a big drum like those which the wandering priests take round with them.

 The wind has come--the rain has come--the old priest with the drum on his back has come.
 [* Derived from a custom rhyme recited when the first rain was falling in the year. The 1st line of this rhyme had already seen in 呂坤『演小兒語』(c.1593); "風来了,雨来了,兒女喜…." 1st appeared in 劉侗『帝京景物略』(c.1635) vol.2 城東内外; "風來了,雨來了,禾場背了穀來了." See also 平189-100.]

◎V071-104 高高山上一顆蒿/兩個禿子去耍刀/兩把刀尖兒落在葫蘆兒上/一個葫蘆兩扇瓢。

 一顆蒿 i1 k'o1 hao1, a stem of artemisia. This 蒿 is for 香蒿 hsiang1 hao1.
 禿子 t'u1-tzŭ, small boys, as explained before.
 耍刀 shua3 tao1, to fence, to play with swords.
 兩扇瓢, two gourd ladles-a gourd cut in the middle forms two ladles, used by poor people to put the rice in. The vulgar numeral is not 扇 but 個 ko4.

 On a very high mountain there is a stem of Artemisia--two boys fence with swords--the two sword points fell on a calabash--and from a calabash were made two ladles.

◎V072-105 香爐兒/瓦燈臺/爺爺兒娶了個奶奶兒來/不梳頭/不作活/嘴饞手懶竟愛喝/爺爺兒沒法兒治/氣的竟哆嗦/說我打你這個拙老婆。

 The first two verses are the ordinary t'ou2-tzu without any reference to what follows.
 香爐兒 hsiang1 lu2'r, a metal or clay vessel to burn incense before the Gods it means literally perfume-stove.
 瓦燈臺 ua3 teng1 t'ai2, a sort of earthenware oil-lamp used in very poor houses.
 氣的 ch'i4-ti, he is so irritated.
 哆嗦 tuo1 suo1, to tremble, to shake with anger.

 An insence-stove and an earthenware lamp--the gentleman has married a lady--who does not comb her hair--does not work--is gluttonous and lazy and likes nothing but drinking--the husband has no way of correcting her--and is so angry that he trembles--and says: I will beat you stupid old woman!

◎V073-106 小妞兒/坐椅子兒/錐帮子兒/衲底子兒。

 Girls in poor families make their own shoes.
 錐帮子 chui1 pang1 tzü, to bore with an holes into the cloth for binding it to the sole.
 衲底子 na4ti3-tzŭ, to beat the sole to harden it. The sole is made of felt.

 The little girl--is sitting on the chair--bores the sides of the shoe--and beats the sole of the shoe.
 [*錐帮子 was originally written as 錐幫子.]

◎V074-106 爺爺抱孫子/坐在波棱蓋兒/羊肉包子蘸醋蒜兒/喫完了撒嬌兒/過來打你爺爺三嘴巴兒。

 蘸 chan4, to dip in, said of a brush in the ink, or of meat in the sauce.
 醋蒜兒 t'su4 suan1'r, sort of sauce made of vinegar and bits of garlic.
 撒嬌兒 sa1 chiao1'r, to gambol, to tease, said of spoilt children.
 嘴巴 tsuei3 pa1, a blow in the face.

 The grandfather embraces his grandson--who sits on his knees--(the grandfather says) here are meat balls to dip in vinegar sauce--when you have finished eating you will be saucy--and will come over to hit your grandfather three blows in the face.

◎V075-107 小脚兒娘/愛喫糖/沒錢兒買/搬着小脚兒哭一場。

 搬脚 pan1 chiao3, to sit down with crossed legs holding the feet in the hands. Children often sit so when disappointed and weeping.

 The little lady with the small feet--like to eat sugar--but has no money to buy it--and sits crosslegged and weep for a good while.

◎V076-108 高高山上一座樓/兩個姑娘去梳頭/大姐梳的盤龍髻/二姐梳的賽花樓/三姐沒的梳/一梳梳了個獅子滾繡毬/大姐坐的是金板凳/二姐坐的是銀板凳/剩下三姐沒的坐/一坐坐在一盤磨/大姐抱着個金娃子/二姐抱着個銀娃子/三姐沒得抱/一抱抱着個樹磕杈。

 盤龍髻 p'an2 lung2 chi4, sort of women's head dress literally coiled dragon chignon.
 賽花樓 sai4 hua1 lou2, another sort of head dress very high and adorned with flowers it means literally "tower which emulate the flowers".
 獅子滾繡毬 shih1 tzŭ kun3 hsiou4 ch'iu2, "a lion who rolls an embroidered ball" sort of amusement in the fairs. Two men dress themselves as lions and then fight, in the same time pushing with the feet a large embroidered ball. Here the phrase is used in the meaning of "confused, not well done, ruffled".
 一盤磨 i1 p'an2 muo4, a mill-stone.

 On a very high mountain there is a high tower--two girls go there to comb their hair--the eldest sister combs her hair into a "coiled dragon chignon"--The second sister combs her hair into a "rivalling flowers tower chignon"--the third sister has no other way of combing her hair--and combs it in a ruffled way--the first sister sits on a golden stool--the second sister sits on a silver stool--there remains the third sister who has no room to sit--and sits on a stone-mill--the first sister folds in her arms a golden baby--the second sister folds in her arms a silver baby--the third sister has nothing to fold in the arms--and folds a forked branch.

◎V077-110 駱駝駱駝噻噻/王八是你哥哥/駱駝駱駝拜拜/王八是你太太/駱駝駱駝抽鼻兒/王八是你小姨兒。

 Pekinese boys address these words to camels, which are well tempered enough not to take any notice of them.
 噻噻 so1 so1, signal given to the camels to make them kneel down, to receive the load on their back. The word is probably derived from the word sok used by Mongol camel drivers. The same word is however used to call a dog to come.
 拜拜 pai4 pai4, to salute as women do here the words refer to the awkward movement of the camels when kneeling down.
 抽鼻兒 ch'ou1 pi2'r, to sniff, as camels use to do.
 小姨兒 hsiao3 i2'r, a man's wife's younger sister.

 Camel, camel, kneel down--a turtle is your older brother--camel, camel, make a salute--a turtle is your wife--camel, camel, sniff--a turtle is your sister-in-law.

●V078-111 你媽七/我媽八/你媽小脚兒開黃花/左一盤兒/右一盤兒/你媽肚子裏有小孩兒/多大了/會走了/你媽肚子裏又有了。

 Two things are to be observed in the first two verses. Apparently there is nothing wrong in them but it is quite the contrary. Ladies generally avoid pronouncing in succession the numbers seven ch'i1 and eight pa1, because, these two syllabes put together, give a sound very similar to that of an equivocal word largely spoken by Chinaman. Now in this case the two syllabes are separated but no Chinese will fail to understand the meaning of it, so much more that translating the numerals simply as they are, would convey no meaning in the two first verses.
 Again-the word 八 that is to say the number eight, has been chosen by Chinese to mean what in higher style would called 玉門 yü4 men2. Therefore the meaning of the second verse cannot be an edifying one.
 開黃花 k'ai1 huang2 hua1,"to open yellow flowers" it seems that in Pekinese slang a "yellow flower foot" means a small foot.
 一盤兒 i1 pan2'r, a tour, a walk.

 Your mother "seven"--your mother "eight"--your mother has small feet--a tour to the left--and a tour to the right--your mother is in a family way--"how old is the baby?"--"he can walk"--your mother is again in a family way.
 [* originally "多大了,會走了" was printed as "多大了,曾走了". firstly,he translated this phrase as "he can walk". secondly, V061-093(小禿兒,長樣兒…) and the songs have similar phrases were said as;"多大了,會走咧". I think this is simple error. And he translated "我媽八" to "your mother eight". and 張142-283 cited this, changed it to "你媽八". but I don't know other variation which had such beginnings, I can't decide whether was "right"./cf. "你媽七,我媽八…", variation see also "小脚丫,開黃花兒…(平161-086)", "小葱兒,蘸醬兒…(平156-083)".]

◎V079-112 桃樹葉兒尖/荷花葉兒圓/梔子開花兒喚牡丹/仙人掌手拿三棱草/淑氣花開挨了一頓覇王鞭。

 仙人掌 hsien1 jen2 chang, a cactus,(Opuntia Dillenii).
 三棱草 san1 leng2 ts'ao3, lit."grass with three edges" a three-cornered sedge(Cyperus).
 淑氣花 shu2 ch'i4 hua1, called in vulgar language 蜀角 shuo2 chiao4 (the original pronunciation and tones ought to be shu3 chiao3), the hollyhock(lat. Althaea rosea).
 覇王鞭 pa4 uang2 pien4, tyrant's whip, a sort of cactus, called so because of its resemblance to an iron whip property of a king of the Ch'u 楚 kingdom, renowned for his bodily strength, named 項羽 Hsiang43.
 In the last verse the phrase has a double meaning as 挨一頓鞭 ai2 i1 tun4 pien1, means to receive a number of whip blows.

 The peach tree leaves are pointed--the lotus leaves are round--the gardenia opens its flowers and calls the peony tree flower--the cactus (the wise man's palm) holds in its hands the three cornered sedge--the hollyhock flower opens and receives a good many blows from the "tyrant's whip".
 [* Cyperus would perhaps be Scirpus,and 三棱草 was "Scirpus fluviatillis A.Gray",三棱 was the name of its roots as use them as medicine.]

◎V080-113 小小子兒/拿倒錘兒/開開怯屋子兩扇門兒/八仙桌子兒漆椅子兒/足登着脚搭子兒/水滿壺/洗竄子兒/四樣兒菜有名景/嫩根兒嫩韭菜/八大燴蝦仁兒/燒豬燒鴨子兒/天上大娘是個道人兒/撤下葷席擺素席兒/叫聲大娘喫飽了/上南臺/聽大戲/芭蕉扇兒/打蚊子兒。

 拿倒 na2tao4,to hold a thing just in the opposite way form that in which it ought to be held, for instance taking a sword by the point.
 錘 ch'ui2, a toy for boys which imitates an ancient weapon to be seen now only on the theatres, it is formed of a large ball of iron to which is attached a handle, and can be compared to our mace used in the middle ages.
 怯屋子 ch'ie4 wu1 tzŭ,a common, plain room, as of labourers in the fields.
 八仙桌子 pa1 hsien1 chuo1 tzŭ, a table for eight persons.
 漆椅子 ch'i1 i3 tzŭ, lacquered chairs.
 脚搭子 chiao3 ta1 tzŭ, a small four-legged stool to lay the feet on.
 竄子 ts'uan4 tzŭ, very vulgar name for a kettle.
 名景 ming2 ching3, fame, renown.
 嫩根兒 nen4 ken1'r, with delicate stems.
 韭菜 chiou3 ts'ai4, leeks.
 八大 pa1 ta1 instead of 八大碗 pa1 ta1 wan3, the eight entries in a good chinese dinner. The verse is very laconic.
 燴蝦仁兒 huei4 hsia4 jen2'r, shrimp pulp with sauce.
 天上大娘 t'ien1 shang4 ta4 niang2, a fairy in heaven, but here very probably a term of flattery for a nun.
 道人兒 tao4 jen2'r, said also in relation to above, a person who has reached the perfection of reason, a holy person.
 葷席 hun1 hsi2, a dinner comprising meat and food, which persons in monastic life should abstain from eating.
 南臺 nan2 t'ai2, the theatre placed on the Southern side.
 芭蕉 pa1 chiao1, palm tree.
 打蚊子 ta3 uen2-tzŭ, to drive away the sandflies.

 The small boy--holding the mace by the head--opens the two leaves of the door of the plain room--(inside there are)one table for eight people and varnished chairs--he leans his feet on a small footstool--the tea pot is overfilled with water--and washes the kettle--four sorts of food are there spread out--delicate leeks with delicate stems--and eight plates with sauced shrimp pulp--pork with sauce and roasted duck--(the nun)like the great lady in heaven is a holy person--and she has the common food removed and vegetable food prepared--people call out: the great lady has eaten to fullness--and goes to the southern stage --to see the play--and with a palm-leaf fan--strikes away the mosquitoes.

◎V081-116 高高山上一顆麻/有個吉了兒往上爬/我問吉了兒爬怎的/他說渴了要喫麻。

 吉了兒 chi2 liao3'r, the cicada, correctly written 蝍蟟兒.
 怎的 tsen3 ti, antiquated form for 怎麽着 tsem3 mo cho, how? why?
 喫麻 ch'ih1 ma2, to eat hemp, a curious way of letting thirst pass away.

 On a very high mountain there is a stem of hemp--there is a cicada who creeps on it--I ask the cicada, why do you creep on--and she says:I am thirsty and want to eat hemp.

◎V082-116 好熱天兒/掛竹簾兒/歪脖兒樹底下/有個妞兒哄着我頑兒/穿着一件大紅坎肩兒/沒有沿邊兒/梳油頭/別玉簪兒/左手拿着玉花籃兒/右手拿着梔子茉莉串枝蓮兒。

 歪脖兒樹 uai1 puo2'r shu4,"trees with a crooked neck" crooked trees.
 大紅 ta4 hung2, deep red.
 沿邊兒 yen2 pien1'r, colored border of ladies dresses.
 油頭 iu2 t'ou2 a hairdress combed with odorous oil.
 別 pie2, there is no particular character for the meaning it means to wear pins in the hair as women do.
 花籃兒 hua1 lan2'r, a flower basket.

 What a hot day--set up the bamboo curtain!--under the crooked trees--there is a small girl who plays and jests with me--she wears a deep red waistcoat--without coloured border--she has combed her hair with oil--and has stuck jade pins into her hair--in the left hand she held a flower basket--and in the right hand she held gardenias, jasmine and wild lotus flowers.

◎V083-118 羊巴巴蛋兒/用脚撮/你是兄來我是哥/打壺酒兒咱們倆人喝/喝醉了/打老婆/吹鼻兒打鼓再娶一個。

 The beginning of this song is nasty but I could not cut it off the song.
 羊巴巴蛋兒 yang2 pa3 pa3 tan1'r, goat dung--
 打壺酒兒 ta3 hu2 chiou3, to go to buy a bottle of wine.
 鼻兒 pi2'r, the mouth of a flute, therefore 吹鼻兒 ch'ui1 pi2'r, means to play the flute or other wind instrument. This phrase alludes to the band of players which accompanies the chair of a bride.

 Goat's dung--crushed by the foot--you are my second brother and I am your first brother--go and buy a bottle of wine we will both drink it--when I am drunk--I will beat my wife--and then with flute-players and drummers I will marry another.
 [* A ridicule rhyme. see also V019-032,平172-093; "小二哥,喫飯兒多…"]

◎V084-119 高高山上有個小廟兒/裏頭住着個神道兒/頭戴草帽兒/身穿藍罩兒/腿穿皮套兒/腰繫草要兒/四個小鬼擡轎兒/兩個小鬼&M075472;兒哇&M075472;兒哇吹號兒/解南來了一個青春年少兒/手裏提溜千張元寶兩吊兒/進廟兒/求個懷抱兒/給我懷抱兒還罷了/不給我懷抱兒/點把火/灰兒花兒燒你的小廟兒/神道兒聞聽心好惱/叫聲小鬼發票兒/快拿青春年少兒/嚇的青春年少兒/咕嘟咕嘟冒泡兒。

 罩兒 chao4'r, very thin overcoat which the Chinese wear over their clothes.
 草要兒 ts'ao3 yao4'r, sort of rope made of dry grass to bind vegetables together, and in this case as a girdle.
 &M075472;兒哇 wen1'r wa1,imitates the sound of the trumpet.
 吹號 for 吹號筒 ch'ui1 hao4 t'ung3, to blow the trumpet.
 青春 ch'ing1 ch'un, the pure spring, the flower of life, youth.
 千張 ch'ien1 chang1, a paper ladder burned in ceremonies in order to give the spirits a way to ascend to heaven.
 元寶兩吊 yüan2 pao3 liang3 tiao4, two strings of paper money, resembling the silver yüan-pao, which the Chinese burn for their dead and in other offerings.
 懷抱兒 huai2 pao4'r, something to carry in the bosom, a child.
 一把火 i1 pa4 huo3, a bundle of combustible matter for obtaining a fire.
 灰兒花兒 hui1'r hua1'r, wants to imitate the noise of a conflagratior.
 發票 fa1 p'iao4, to issue a warrant to arrest a man.
 冒泡兒 mao4 p'ao4'r, to gasp and let air out of the mouth as fish does when just taken out of the water that is said to show the agonizing fear of the young girl. 咕嘟咕嘟 ku1 tu1 ku1 tu1, imitates the gurgling round of the air gasping out of the throat.

 On a very high mountain--there is a small temple--inside is sitting a holy man--who wears on his head a dry grass hat--and on his body an azure cloak--and on his legs skin leggings--and round his waist a grass rope for girdle--four small devils bear the chair--two small devils blow the trumpet--from the South has come a young girl in the bloom of life--who has in her hands a paper ladder and paper money--she enters the temple--to pray for a child--(she says:) give me a child and it shall be all right--if you do not give me a child--I will make a fire--and burn your small temple--the holy man hearing this is very much angry--and calls for the small devils to issue a warrant of arrest--(saying) quickly apprehend this young woman in the bloom of life,--but the young woman in the bloom of life is so scared that she gasps for breath.
 [* see also V042-064. And 平112-059; "一道兒,兩道兒…".]

◎V085-121 有個妞兒不害羞/管着賣花的叫舅舅/舅舅舅舅給我一朶紅石榴/懷裏揣/袖裏袖/利利拉拉一大溜。

 揣 ch'uai, means to feel, to grope, and also to hide in the bosom, as Chinese do because of their not having pockets.
 袖 hsiou4, a sleeve, and also, to place in the sleeve.
 利利拉拉 li4 li4 la1 la1--without interruption-without end.
 一大溜 i1 ta4 liu4, a great row a great number of.

 There is a small girl who does not feel ashamed--and calls the flower seller her own uncle--uncle,uncle give me a flower of the red pomegranate--I will put it in my bosom--I will put it in my sleeve--and all the ground shall be strown with flowers.

◎V086-122 有個小禿兒本姓高/初一十五把香燒/人家燒香為兒女/禿子燒香為長毛/到了三天毛長上/又燒香/又掛袍/到了三天毛掉了/搬倒了老爺架火燒/老爺一見冲冲怒/拿起大刀就開瓢。

 The Chinese are accustomed to burn incense on the first and fifteenth of a month.
 為長毛 uei4 chang4 mao2, to make the hair grow.
 掛袍 kua1 p'ao2,"to put on Buddha's body a jacket". Some people who want to get a favour from the Divinity, to soothe him, buy a silk or satin jacket which they themselves put on his body.
 搬倒了 pan1 tao3 la, he upset the God.
 老爺 lao3 ye2, Mister, Sir, gentleman, here it is instead of 關老爺 kuan1 lao3 ye2, the God of war.
 架 chia4, to lean the object on a stand, here in order to burn it completely.
 冲冲怒 ch'ung1 ch'ung1 nu4, in great irritation.

 There is small bald-headed man, whose name was Kao--who went to burn incense on the first and fifteenth--people burn incense to get a son or a daughter--but the baldheaded man burns incense to make his hair grow--after three days the hair was growing--and he burns incense--and dresses the God with a new jacket--after three days the hair fell off--and he upset the Kuanti statue and placed him against a stand to burn him --But Kuanti seeing that, was awfully irritated--he took up his great halberd and split the man's calabash(head) into two ladles.

◎V087-123 立立立立站兒/上河沿兒/一個豬劈兩半兒/你一半兒/我一半兒/打酒就酒菜兒。

 The first word li4 is reapeated four times for the sake of the rhythm.
 就酒菜兒 chiou4 chiou3 ts'ai4'r, to accompany the food which is generally taken whilst drinking wine here it alludes to the pig's head.

 I top here--go on the banks of the river--of a pig's head we will make two portions--you will get a half--and I will get a half--and we will go and buy wine to suit the wine-food.
 [* cf.In the translation of this 3rd verse,there seen a word which‘pig's head’. And in a variation of other collection(続182-085),the 3rd verese was wrote as 一個豬頭劈兩半兒. Consider from these,the words of this song had been lacking for a letter of 頭 after 豬 in the 3rd verse originally.]

◎V088-124 鑼鍋兒橋/萬壽山/鎭海銅牛在上邊/賣豆腐腦兒的/喝喝連連在海淀。
 This song is not very intelligible names of places are put together without any apparent reason.
 鎭 chen4, to protect against bad luck and danger. 鎭物 chen4 u4, an object which counteracts evil influences.
 The brass ox which is spoken of here is on the shore of the lake k'un1 ming2 hu2 and is there to oppose the danger which chinese believe would arise from the overflowing of the lake. In the lake there is supposed to be a 海眼 hai3 yen3, that is to say a "sea-eye" a hole in the bottom of the lake which communicates with the sea, and out of which all the sea water would rise and overflow the country.
 The lake 昆明湖 k'un1 ming2 hu2 is in the Haitien in the neighbourhood of Peking.
 在上邊 tzai4 shang4 pien1, on the shore.
 豆腐腦 tou4 fu3 nao3, sort of bean-curd.
 喝喝 ho1 ho1, cries of vendors in the street.
 連連 lien2 lien2, without interruption.

 The hunchback bridge--Wan-shou-shan--the brass oxen on the shore,which protects the country from the sea water--the vendors of bean curd--go along crying their ware without interruption.

◎V089-125 黑老婆兒/滿地滾/嗔着他男人不買粉/買了粉他不搽/嗔着他男人不買麻/買了麻他不打/嗔着他男人不買馬/買了馬他不喂 /嗔着他男人不買櫃/買了櫃他不盛/嗔着他男人不買繩/買了繩他上弔/嚇了他男人一大跳。

 滿地滾 man3 ti4 kun3, rolls over the ground.
 嗔着 ch'en1 cho2, speaking angrily, scolding.
 打麻 ta3 ma2,to beat the hemp,to take away the bark from the stems.
 盛 here read ch'eng2, to fill something with, to put, to place in.
 上弔 shang4 tiao4, to hang oneself.

 The old brown woman--rolls herself all over the ground--scolding because her husband does not buy cosmetic for her--but when he has bought cosmetic then she does not use it--scolding because her husband does not buy hemp for her--when he has bought hemp, then she does not thrash it--scolding because her husband does not buy a horse --when he has bought a horse, she does not feed it--scolding because her husband does not buy a wardrobe--when he has bought the wardrobe, she does not puts her things there--scolding because her husband has not bought a cord--when he has bought a cord, she hangs herself--and frightens her husband to death.

◎V090-127 小小子兒/胖咕圇墪兒/&M045116;臂上戴着個金鐲子兒/身穿紅兜肚綠褲子兒/腦袋瓜兒梳着個歪毛兒/一笑倆酒窩/一走一哆嗉/拉着姐姐咱們買果子。

 胖咕圇墪兒 p'ang4 ku1 lun1 tun1'r, fat and round, said of a child.
 兜肚 tou1 tu4, a covering for the stomach worn by children.
 腦袋瓜兒 nao3 tai4 kua1'r, the head, the skull, a jocular expression.
 歪毛兒 uai1 mao2'r, a round tuft of hair which small boys wear either on the right or on the left of the head.
 酒窩兒 chiu3 uo1'r, dimples in the cheek.

 The very little boy--is round and fat--he wears a gold bracelet on his arm--and wears a red stomach protector and green trowsers[*trousers]--on his head he wears a tuft of hair--when he laughs two dimples appear on his cheeks--when he walks all his body trembles--and taking the elder sister by the hand says: elder sister, let us go and buy fruit.

◎V091-128 黃城根兒/一溜門兒/門口兒站着個小妞人兒/有個意思兒/白布汗褟兒藍布褲子兒/耳朶上戴着排環墜[兒]/頭上梳的是大抓髻兒/搽着胭兒/抹着粉兒/誰是我的小女婿兒。

 皇城 huang2 ch'eng2, the wall which goes round the imperial city.
 城根兒 ch'eng2 ken1'r, near the wall, opposite to it.
 妞人兒 niu1-jen2'r, rather affected for the sake of rhyme instead of the simple 妞兒 niu1'r.
 有個意思兒 iou3 ko4 i4 ssu4'r, there is a thought, it is amusing pleasant to look at it and to think of it.
 排環墜兒 p'ai2 huan2 chuei4'r, a sort of earrings for women.
 搽胭 ch'a1 yen1, to rub rose cosmetic on the cheeks or on the palms of the hands.
 抹粉 muo3 fen3, to rub white cosmetic powder on the cheeks.
 小女婿兒 hsiao3 nu3 hsü4,a small son-in-law, said to a girl to mean her bridegroom.

 Near the wall of the imperial town--there is a row of doors--near a door there stands a small girl--she is really nice--with a shirt of white cloth and trousers of blue cloth--she wears round ear-rings--and has a great chignon on her head--on the face she has rubbed red powder--and white powder--who shall be my little bridegroom?
 [* originally 排環墜兒 was written in the verses as 排環墜. In 張082-163 was also corrected as above.]

◎V092-129 簷蝙蝠,穿花鞋/你是奶奶兒,我是爺。

 The first two verses are the common introduction without definite meaning.
 簷蝙蝠 the bat is called in suhua yen1 pien1 hu3, but the regular pronunciation ought to be yen2 pien1 fu2. As to the fact of wearing embroidered shoes, the chinese explain as follows: sometimes in order to catch a bat, a shoes is thrown in the air, and the bat himself runs into the shoe and so falls to the ground and is taken.
 Very likely the need of a rhyme has forced in the whole phrase.

The bat--wears embroidered shoes--you are a wife--and I am a husband.

◎V093-130 老太太叫貓/花兒花兒花兒狐貍喲/我們的貓有名兒/鞭打繡球金鑲玉/雪裏送炭四個銀蹄/有人要偸了我們的貓兒去/抽了你的筋來/剝了你的皮。

 花兒花兒 hua1'r hua1'r, is equivalent to the english puss! puss! to call a cat.
 花兒狐貍 hua1'r hu2 li2 striped fox the name of one of the cats belonging
to the lady.
 鞭打繡球 pien1 ta3 hsiou4 ch'iu2, means literally "a whip that beats the embroidered ball". The coats of cats have different curious names to distinguish them. This phrase means a cat which has a black tail and a black spot on the forehead, meaning that with his long black tail(the whip) he strikes the black spot on the forehead(the embroidered ball).
 金鑲玉 chin1 hsiang14, another name for a cat's coat "jade inlaid with gold" a cat with a white coat with yellow spots.
 雪裏送炭 hsüe3 li3 sung4 t'an4, another name, literally explained "coal sent in the snow" a black coat with four white paws.
 銀蹄 in2-t'i2, a silver hoof, said of white hoofs and paws.

 The old lady calls the cat--puss, puss! Fox--our cats have all a name--(there is) "the whip that beats the embroidered ball" and "jade inlaid with gold"--and more "coal brought in the snow" with four white paws--if there is a man who wants to steal away my cat--I will draw out your muscles--and peel away your skin.
 [* Simular phrases were seen in a ballad cited in『霓裳續譜』(1795) vol.4,titled「我的貓兒誰偸去」"我的貓兒誰偸去,偸貓的人兒你是聽知,我的貓兒雪裏送炭實有趣,鞭打繡毬四隻蹄兒是金鑲玉…". In 歌1-47,4「民歌―京兆」there also seen a rhyme like this "花,花,花狐貍,/我那貓兒有名的;/鞭打繡球金鑲玉,/雪裏送炭四銀蹄;/你若不放出來,老太太可要罵啦!" . And the correspondent said this is a charm recite when a cat was missing.]

◎V094-131 小秦椒兒/怎麽不辣/我爸爸瞧見我媽就害怕/跪在地下頂着個燈/還怕流了油兒摔了蠟/我媽要洗脚/我爹往前跑/脫了襪子還說香/要是說臭挨嘴巴/裝過袋煙兒/遞過碗茶兒/樂的我媽咨着牙兒/我爸爸叫了一聲孩兒他媽/老太太兒饒了我罷/再要生氣我滾出去/從今兒永遠我不回家。

 This song is supposed to be sung by a small boy who innocently relates the strife between father and mother. In China although the family laws are severe and different from ours, yet there exists a sufficient number of henpecked husbands. A number of anecdotes regarding uxorious husbands are currently spread.
 秦椒 ch'in2 chiao1, chillies(lat.Capsicum annuum) very likely here the house wife is not wrongly likened to the chillies.
 爸爸 pa4 pa4, common appellation for father, and the same as our papa.
 頂着燈 ting3-cho1-teng1, bearing a lamp on the head a henpecked husband is jestingly supposed to kneel down before his wife, who orders him as a punishment to stay a long time in the position, with an oil-lamp on his head. So the husband must endure the pain of being scalded by the oil that drops down from the lamp and runs on his back. This notion is so generally known and jested about that one of the must common tricks to produce general hilarity is to alarm a friend by saying he has got oil-stains on his back.
 油 iu2, for oil is intended here the product of the melting of wax.
 一袋煙 i1 tai4 yen1, a pipe filled with tobacco.
 孩兒他媽 hai2'r t'a1 ma1, "the children's mother" title given by the husband to a wife who has born children to him 孩兒他爸爸 hai2'r t'a1 pa1 pa1, the children's father. Two abridged phrases for that are 他媽 and 他爹.

 The small chillies--how could they not be bitter?--when my father catches sight of my mother, he is afraid--he kneels down with a lamp on his head,--and is also afraid lest the oil should run down, or the candle should fall--when my mother wants to wash her feet--my father runs forward--when he has taken down the socks he says that it is scented--if he says it is bad smelling he gets a slap on the face--when he has filled her pipe--and handed over to her a cup of tea--my mother is so delighted that she shows her teeth--my father has once called her: o mother of my children--old lady, forgive me now--if you are going to get angry again, I will roll away--and from now henceforward I will never come back home.

◎V095-133 蒿子燈,荷葉燈/今兒點,明兒個扔。

 On the fifteenth day of the seventh moon is celebrated the Feast of the Spirits 中元節 chung1 yüan2 chie2. In the evening many lanterns are lighted on the streets.
 蒿子燈 hao1 tzŭ3 teng1, it is not a lantern but a whole plant of artemisia on the branches of which incense sticks are bound and the lighted.
 荷葉燈 ho2 ye4 teng1, another lantern formed of a leaf of lotus on which a candle has been fixed.

 The artemisia lantern--and the lotus-lantern--to day they are lighted--and to-morrow they are thrown away.
 [* "蒿子燈,荷葉燈"; custom rhyme. in『燕京歲時記』(郭崇 c.1899)「荷葉燈蒿子燈蓮花燈」,there seen a variation of this; "荷葉燈,荷葉燈,今日點了明日扔。" var.see also "蓮花蓮花燈." ]

◎V096-134 小三兒他媽/頂房柁/窩摳眼/挺長脖/穿着一件破袳&M034743;/窟窿兒大/補丁多/渾身的鈕子沒有兩個/告訴你媽嫁了我罷/又得喫來又得喝。

 頂 ting3, to reach with the head.
 房柁 fang2 t'uo2, the prinicipal beam in the roof.
 摳 k'ou1 means here sunken, deep and 窩摳眼 uo1 k'ou1 yen3, sunken eyes.
 挺 t'ing3, character used to form the superlative in very common language, used instead of 頂 ting3.
 袳&M034743; tuo3 luo2, sort of old dress consisting of a long gown with a high collar, worn in winter time.
 補丁 pu3 ting1, patches. A chinese coat has never more than six buttons.

 Sar's mother--is as tall as the roof--has sun-ken eyes--and a very long neck--she wears a broken overcoat--with big holes--and many patches--on her whole person there are not even two buttons--now, tell your mother to marry me! --she will get food and drink.

◎V097-135 小耗子兒/上燈臺/偸油喫/下不來。

 The small mouse--has climbed up the candlestick--to steal oil to cat--and now cannot come down.
 [* A famous nursery rhyme. These phrases were already seen in a popular ballad cited in『霓裳續譜』(1795)vol.4,titled「摘頭換鞋」「摘頭換鞋等候着郎來,斜倚靠枕,手兒托着腮…小耗子兒上燈臺偸油喫,他可下不來…」.]

◎V098-135 兩枝蠟/一股香/二十三日祭竈王/一碟兒草料/一碗水/潑在地下上天堂/當家的過來把頭叩/三聲爆竹響叮噹/竈王爺/回來罷回來罷/給你留着關東糖。

 This song speaks about the ceremony for the God of the stove on the 23d day of the twelfth moon. Before the God's picture incense is burning and on
the table there is a dish containing water, and one with grass which is supposed to server for the God's house. The water then is thrown to the ground and the grass in the air. That means the end of this ceremony.
 當家的 tang1 chia1 ti, the oldest man in the family who is called to perform the sacrifices and all religious ceremonies.
 天堂 t'ien1 tang2, the Heavenly hall, the paradise.
 爆竹 p'ao4 chu2, fire crackers.
 響叮噹 hsiang3 ting1 tang1, the noise is ting-tang:
 關東糖 kuan1-tung1 t'ang2, Manchurian sugar. The Chinese offer sugar to this God, with the aim of letting his teeth stick together and so prevent him from relating to Heaven all the inconvenience and misdeed he had occasion to see in the family during twelve months: with this hope, the Chinese merrily begin their New-year.

 Two candles--a bundle of incense sticks--on the 23d day it is sacrificed to the God of the hearth--there is a dish full of grass--and a dish full of water--when the water is thrown on the ground the God ascends to Heaven--the eldest of the family comes over and knocks his head on the ground--then three volleys of crackers with a great noise--God of the hearth--come back! come back!--we keep for you Manchurian sugar.

◎V099-137 八仙桌兒/四角兒方/盤子碗兒擺在中央/燒豬燒鴨子東坡肉/保府帶來的八寶香腸。

 四角兒 ssu4 chiao3'r, with four corners.
 中央 chung yang1, in the middle, the word yang1 is pronounced vulgarly yang2.
 東坡肉 tung1 p'uo1 jou4, sort of meat prepared in a special way as directed by a certain old literary man who was great authority also on kitchen matters. His name was 蘇軾 Su1-shih4 and his surname, hao, was Tung p'uo1.
 保府 Pao3-fu3 is instead of 保定府 Pao3 ting4 fu3, the head prefecture in the Chih-li province.
 八寶香腸 pa1 pao3 hsiang1 ch'ang2 "the odorous sausages with eight treasures" a sort of sausages made of pork stuffed into chicken's intestines. The eight treasures alluded to are the spices, aromas which are in the stuff. These sausages come from Pao-ting-fu.

 A table for eight persons--with four corners square--plates and cups are placed in the middle of it--roast pork, roast duck, and meat prepared a la Tung-p'uo--and sausages from Pao-ting-fu.

◎V100-138 喜兒喜兒喫豆腐/小雞兒過來嗛把穀/狗兒汪汪要看家/貓兒過來會撲鼠。

 喜兒 hsi3'r stands for 喜雀 hsi3 ch'iao3, the magpie.
 嗛 ch'ien1, to peck.
 汪汪 uang4 uang4, imitates the noise of barking.
 撲鼠 p'u1 shu3, to rush on mice, to catch mice as cats do.
 These words are repeated by children when they catch sight of magpies.

 The magpie, the magpie eats beancurd--the chicken comes over and pecks a handful of grain--the dog barks and wants to look after the house--the cat comes over and wants to catch the mice.

◎V101-139 喜兒喜兒買豆腐/該我的錢/臘月二十五。

 chinese accounts and debts are paid at the end of every quarter and the great bulk of money accounts ought to be paid, in the 12th month from the 25th day to the 30th at midnight.

 The magpie, the magpie buys beancurd--those who owe me money--(I shall see them) on the 25th day of the 12th moon.

◎V102-139 顧不得一時睡着/你扛槍/我扛鎬/上南窪/刨元寶/一刨刨出個大蒲包/隔着蒲包望裏瞧/金元寶銀元寶/金鋼鑽兒/兩大筲/瑚珊子樹兩丈高/要買人怕逃跑/要買房子怕火燒/要買驢怕倒槽/要開當舗眼力兒潮/要開錢桌子沒人兒保/東邊兒摸/西邊兒摸/摸了個青頭愣的蝎子/螫的我鬼哭神嚎。

 The song relates a dream.
 顧不得 ku4 pu4 to2, without apperceiving it insensibly.
 鎬 kao3, said also 鐝頭 chüe3 t'ou2, a hoe. The first character is not noted in dictionaries.
 刨 p'ao2, to dig the ground with a hoe.
 蒲包 p'u2 pao1, a bundle made of rushes.
 金鋼石 chin1 kang1 shih2, the diamond. 金鋼鑽兒 chin1 kang1 tsan4'r, the diamond-pointed awl used by menderes of crockery.
 倒槽 tao3 ts'ao2, said of animals "to die near the manger, in the stable".
 眼力兒潮 yen3 li4'r ch'ao2, lit. the strength of the eyes is damp, that is to say we have not eyes good enough to distinguish good objects from bad ones-a faculty which is necessary in such an establishment as a pawn-shop. The word ch'ao has also in other cases the meaning of not up to, insufficient, as in 潮銀子 ch'ao2 yin2 tzu, bad silver, with too much alloy.
 錢桌子 ch'ien2 cho1-tzu, lit."money-table" a bank authorized to issue small banknotes and guaranteed by other banks.
 摸 mao1, to feel with the hands, read here vulgarly mao2.
 鬼哭神嚎 kuei3 k'u1 shen2 hao2, "the devils weep and the spirits wail" that is "in a very painful way".

 Without perceiving it in a moment I fell asleep--(I dreamed) you had shouldered a gun--and I shouldered a hoe--and went to the South morass--to dig out silver ingots--and digging we dug out a big rush wrapper--through the rush wrapper we looked in--there were gold ingots and silver ingots--and two large buckets of diamonds--and two coral trees two chang high--but if we buy servants I am afraid they would run away--if we buy houses I am afraid they would burn--if we buy an ass, I am afraid he would die near the manger--if we open a pawn-shop, we have not eyes good enough for that--if we open a money-shop, there is none who will guarantee us--but feeling for the East --and feeling for the West--I felt a big ugly scorpion--which bit me so painfully that it made me scream.

●V103-142 小大姐/小二姐/你拉胡琴我打鐵/掙了錢兒/腰裏掖/買個蒲包兒瞧乾爹/乾爹戴着紅纓帽/乾兒穿着厚底兒鞋/走一步/格登登/扎蝴蝶兒鴨蛋青。

 拉胡琴兒 la1 hu2 ch'in2'r, to play the tartar fiddle.
 打鐵 ta3 t'ie3, to beat the iron, to work the iron.
 腰裏掖 yao1 li3 ye1, to hide, to place something in the waist.--These baskets made of rushes are especially used for containing objects for gifts.
 格登登 ko2 teng1 teng1 imitates the noise of the shoes slapping on the ground.
 鴨蛋青 ya1 tan4 ch'ing1, of the same colour as the eggs of ducks.

 You the first small young lady--and I the second small young lady--you play on the fiddle--and I will strike the iron--when we will have gained money--we will put it in the waist--we will buy a rush basket and will go to see our adopted father--Our adopted father has a red fringed hat--and our adopted mother has shoes with a thick sole--at every step--the creaking is heard--the butterflies embroidered on the shoes are of duck's egg colour.
 [* I don't know the word "乾兒" expressed as "our adopted mother" as in his translation. for in many other variations,it said as"娘" or "媽". for example,version cited in 歌1-18,5(「兒歌選錄―京兆」夏薌圃 collected in 武清),said the phrase as;"乾娘穿着木底鞋", 歌1-48.8(「兒歌―山東」朱鑑堂 collected in 高唐) was "咱娘穿着咯噔鞋",and 歌2-5,8(「河北兒歌」郭椰葉 collected in 北京) "乾媽穿着高底鞋". I think Vitale made a error. Actually, 張140-279 cited this song and changed to "乾娘穿着厚底兒鞋"./cf. similar phrases are sometimes seen in other song begin as;"小禿兒,咧!咧!咧!…"(see 平178-095.)]

◎V104-143 新姑娘,十幾咯/婆婆家要娶了/一對兒龍/一對兒鳳/金瓜鉞斧朝天鐙/小紅鞋兒/蝴蝶兒夢/跳了桌子上板凳。

 The dragon is compared to the bridegroom and the phoenix bird to the bride. In the marriage cortege there are taken round a pair of banners on which the dragon is painted and another pair on which is painted the phoenix.
 金瓜 chin1 kua1,gilt wood gourd stuck to the end of a pole and taken round.
 鉞斧 yüe4 fu3, a sort of wooden axe.
 朝天鐙 ch'ao2 t'ien1 teng4, a stirrup iron turned upside down and stuck on a pole.
 小紅鞋兒 hsiao3 hung2 hsie2'r, red satin shoes worn by the bride.
 蝴蝶兒夢 hu2 t'ie2'r meng4, the Dream of the butterflies, named of a pattern of shoes on which butterflies are embroidered.

 The bride is ten years and more--the mother-in-law wants to take her home--a pair of dragon flags--and a pair of phoenix flags--and gilt gourds, gilt axes, and reversed stirrups.--(the bride wears) small red shoes--and she jumps on the table and then on the bench.
 [* see also 平015-008,平074-037 and 続083-045.]

◎V105-144 有邊兒有邊兒,眞有邊兒/藍布的大衫兒/青坎肩兒/時興花兒的褲子賽糧船兒。

 These words describe the toilet of a small girl.
 有邊兒 iou3 pien1'r, slang phrase which means to be very nice, to be first rate.
 衫兒 shan1'r, read the shan3'r, a summer thin bodice.
 時興 shih2 hsing1, the fashion.
 賽糧船兒 sai4 liang2 ch'uan2'r, bigger, larger than a ship used to bring the grain tributes.

 She is first rate, first rate, really first rate!--with a great bodice of azure cloth--and a brown waistcoat--and trousers with a new pattern, as large as a rice junk.

◎V106-145 出了門兒好喪氣/瞧了個兔子倒憋氣/剛要拿槍打/看了一看/是個拉屎的。

 In Peking, generally acknowledged to be the dirtiest city in the world, it is not an uncommon sight to see people stopping on the public streets to per-form the duties of nature. The chinese do not resent it but the boys have composed these few verses which they sing loudly, when the occasion arises of insulting any one caught in the act.
 好 hao3 does not mean here good but "how much"! how great!--We have already hinted at the double meaning of the word hare in China.
 Here the word is not used without a reason 倒憋氣 tao4 pie1 ch'i4, means to draw in the breath as if preparing for an effort.

 As soon as I came out of my gate, what an unauspicious sight!--I saw a hare which was drawing in its breath--I was just going to take the gun and shoot--when looking more closely--it was a man who had been taken short!

◎V107-146 咚咚咚/坐轎兒/一坐坐到二廟兒/二廟東/二廟西/裏頭坐着個肥公雞/哏哏哏兒/上草垜。

 咚咚咚 tung1 tung1 tung1, imitates the noise of a drum and 哏兒 imitates the cock's crowing.
 草垜 ts'ao3 tuo4, a heap of straw, of oats.

 The drum are striking--(she) is sitting in the chair--and has gone as far the second temple--the east of the temple--and the west of the tem-ple--inside there sits a fat cock--which crows--and flies on a heap of straw.
 [* 『北京民間児童娛楽』p.5, says this verse as a play-song used in a sort of knee-riding called "坐轎兒". In 歌1-3,1(1922.12.31)「我們什麽要研究歌謠」,a variation used in same amusement was cited; "咕咚咚,坐轎兒,一年一窩小耗子兒。" ]

◎V108-147 一進門兒黑咕窿咚/先當銅盆後當燈/一進門兒本是一窩耗子精/說一聲不好牆要咕咚。

 The interior of a miserable house is described.
 黑咕窿咚 hei1 ku1 lung2 tung1 (pronounce with the accent on the last) the first syllabe only gives a clear sense-the other cannot be explained but the general sense is that of complete obscurity, chaos.
 耗子精 hao4 tzŭ ching1, transformation of mice: fantastical mouse-like elves.
 不好 pu4 hao3 here alas!

 Upon entering all was pitch dark--because first the copper basin had been pawned and then the lamp too--going inside(I perceived) I was in a nest of mouse-like elves--and just when I was saying: alas! here the wall is coming down!

◎V109-148 高高山上一座樓/男人梳着女人頭/狀元及第空歡喜/恩愛夫妻不到頭。 [Ans./演戲]

 At first it was very difficult for me to get any sense out of these four verses but at last I got from quite an uncultivated person this explanation which could solve all the difficulties. The words above refer to the theatre and to the actors. In China no female actors are allowed and so the second verse could represent a man who combs the hair as a woman, to act on the stage. It seems furthermore to say in the third verse that although the actors on the stage very often play the part of scholars approved at the examinations yet they ha-ve no real reason to be glad there at. The fourth verse then means to say that although loving and affectionates pairs are to be seen on the stage yet that is sham as they are of the same sex.
 及第 chi2 ti4, technical phrase to mean "to be ap-proved at the examinations".
 空 k'ung1, void, vainly.
 恩愛 en1-ai4, mutual love derived from gratitude and esteem, as that between husband and wife.
 不到頭 pu4 tao4 t'au2, "does not come to a point" that is, has no aim, no regular fruit, as expected after marriage.

 On a very high mountain there is a high tower (stage)--a man is combing there as a womam-- the first candidate approved at the examinations rejoices in vain--and loving husband and wife will never come to a point.
 [* A riddle. "男人梳着女人頭" suggested the actors in the Chinese Opera./cf. var."四四方方一座樓,男人梳起女人頭,狀元及第空思想,騎馬坐轎都自走。","四四方方一座樓,男人梳起女人頭,穿紅着綠多好看,恩愛夫妻不到頭。","高高山上一座堂,文武百官在裏藏,姊妹二人不相會,扎角夫妻不同床。"(『中国謎語大全』p.26-7 王仿 1983)]

◎V110-149 小元兒小元兒/咱們倆人頑兒/踢球打嘎兒/上二閘兒/喫了一個飯兒/喝了一個茶兒/回到家去/咱們倆人頑兒。

 小元兒 hsiao3 yüan2'r. "the small First" surname for a boy.
 踢球 t'i1 ch'iu2 to kick balls" sort of game in which the ability consists in pushing with the feet a stone ball and triing to touch the adversary's.
 打嘎兒 ta3 ka2'r, another game which consists in throwing very far a wooden ball by mean of a wooden racket called 棒兒 pang4'r.
 二閘兒 eur1 cha2'r, the second canal lock near the Tung-pien-men[*東便門]. On the banks there is a very elegant resort for young men. Eating-houses provide meals, female singers, boats and all that is necessary to make a Chinese happy.

 Small Yüar2, small Yüar2--now,let us play--let us kick the balls or play at rackets--and go to the second Canal lock--when we shall have taken a meal--and when we shall have drunk tea--we will go back home--now, let us play!

●V111-150 月亮爺/亮堂堂/開開後門兒洗衣裳/洗得白漿得白/娶了個媳婦兒/不存財/愛喝酒/愛鬪牌/燒餅麻花兒一大落/黑麵火燒/倆大錢個/隔壁兒倒有/姜三哥/也會過/綠靴子/綠帽子/綠袍子/綠套子。

 月亮爺 yüe4 liang2 ye2,"the father moon" name given to the moon by children.
 亮堂堂 liang4 t'ang1 t'ang1, very bright. Observe here the change of tone in the word 堂 to be read regularly t'ang2.
 存財 ts'un2 ts'ai, to be economical, to put aside money.
 麻花兒 ma2 hua1'r, a sort of bun.
 一落 i1 luo4, a pile. These words are supposed to be uttered by a wife who in the night, goes out in the court to wash her linen and working, thinks of her sorrows.
 姜三哥 Chiang1 san1 ko1, the word Chiang is a family name. San1 ko1, means that the man in question is the third in his family.
 過 kuo4 is here for 過日子 kuo4 jih4 tzu, to pass one's life, to live and spend one's days peacefully, that is to say economically and frugally.
 綠帽子 lü4 mao4 tzu, "a green hat" the green colour is in China reserved for deceived husbands, and the phrase "to wear a green hat" means to have a partner in the marriage.

 The father moon--is so bright!--I open the back door to wash my linen--I wash it white and I starch it white--but (my husband) after having marriage me--is thrifty with his money--he likes to drink wine--he likes to play cards--(and likes too) a great pile of cakes and buns--and brown flower biscuits--which cost two big cash each--but here living by us--there is a neighbour, Chiang the third--who knows how to live well--because he has got green boots--and a green hat--and a green garment--and a green jacket.
 [* 漿得白 was originally written as [將/衣]得白. There was an strange part on its verse. For it said in the 5th line "娶了個媳婦兒不存財(I have a "wife" who is wasteful)", but the editor translated it as "husband" ,and followings were also described as the "husband's" idleness. Judging from its contents, especially the phrases after "姜三哥", this song was also suggested that it was originally towards the "husband". So, "man in green" suggested the "cuckold". In fact, there were two kinds of variation of which treat on the wife's idleness and the husband's idleness, and 張115-229 changed these phrases to "嫁了個丈夫不存財(the husband I marriaged was so wasteful)". But I haven't known other variation which had the phrases like "姜三哥" yet. For I can't decide it was an error of this editor or confusion by the original singer. ]

◎V112-152 &M075473;兒&M075473;兒/上草垜/一年養活/七八個/好的都賣了/剩了禿丫頭/讓他刷缸/缸裏洗褲襠/讓他刷鍋/鍋裏洗裹脚/讓他擦碟兒/碟裏洗面兒/讓他掃地/崩到南邊兒看穀地/看着穀葉兒黃/再上家裏去。

 From the beginning of the song I could think that the matter is about a cock, but that is only in a jocose way because afterwards it comes to speak of a girl.
 褲襠 k'u4 tang4, the bottom of the trousers.
 裹脚 kuo3 chiao3, foot-bands used by women with small feet.

 The cock crowing--has jumped on the heap of grass--every year he bears seven or eight times --the good ones he has all sold--only a bald-headed(small) girl is left--if he lets her wash the vats--she washes there the bottom of the trousers --if he lets her wash the ricepot--she washes there her footbands--it he lets her wash the saucers--she washes her face in the saucers--if he lets her sweep the ground--she runs away towards the South to look at the grain fields--when she has seen that the grain is yellow--she comes back home.

◎V113-153 茉莉花兒丈夫/茉莉花兒的郎/串枝蓮兒的枕頭,繡海棠/虞美人兒姑娘,走進了房/眼淚汪汪想親娘/臉擦官粉玫瑰露兒香/嘴點梅花胭脂玫瑰瓣兒香/新買了個小豬兒不喫糠/走一步亮堂堂/鼓靠鼓/鑼靠鑼/新娶媳婦兒靠公婆。

 玫瑰露 mei2 kuei4 lu4, rose water in other cases it means also a sort of white wine.
 This song seems to be composed of scraps of other songs.

 The jasmine-husband--the jasmine-bridegroom(is there)--on the wild lotus pillow is embroidered the flower of the Pyrus spectabilis--the Rhoeas young-lady enters the room--and weeps bitterly thinking of her own mother--she rubs on her face good cosmetic powder scented with rose water--and she rubs rouge scented like rose petals on her lips--by means of a round clothshaped like a plum-flower.
 [* see also CMG045-053,平041-019.]

◎V114-155 平則門拉大弓/過去就是朝天宮/朝天宮寫大字/過去就是白塔寺/白塔寺掛紅袍/過去就是馬市橋/馬市橋跳三跳/過去就是帝王廟/帝王廟搖葫蘆/過去就是四牌樓/四牌樓東/四牌樓西/四牌樓底下賣估衣/問問估衣多兒錢賣/打個火抽袋煙兒/過去就是毛家灣兒/毛家灣兒扎根刺兒/過去就是護國寺兒/護國寺賣大斗/過去就是新街口兒/新街口兒賣大糖/過去就是蔣家房/蔣家房安煙袋/過去就是王奶奶/王奶奶啃西瓜皮/過去就是火藥局/火藥局賣鋼針兒/過去就是老城根兒/老城根兒兩頭兒多/過去就是王八窩/晴天晒蓋子/陰天躦湯鍋。

 This song contains a description of the streets in Peking.
 平則門 p'ing2 tso2 men2, the central gate in the west-wall of the manchu city.
 拉大弓 la1 ta4 kung1, to practice archery using a large bow lit.to draw the long bow.
 朝天宮 chao2 t'ien1 kung1, name of a temple.
 白塔寺 pai2 t'a3 ssu4, the temple of the white pagoda.
 掛紅袍 kua4 hung2 p'ao2, to put a red coat on the image of Buddha, as people do who have received a favour.
 馬市橋 The horse mart bridge. A bridge on the canal.
 搖葫蘆 iao2 hu2 lu2, to shake a gourd, as babies are allowed to do, in order to keep them quiet.
 四牌樓 ssu4 p'ai2 lou2, a square formed by junction of four streets at right angles. At each side there is a wooden monumental arch. Two of these squares exist in Peking, one in the east of the Tartar city called 東四牌樓 tung1 ssu4 p'ai2 lou2 and another in the west of the city called 西四牌樓 hsi1 ssu4 p'ai2 lou2, which is alluded to here.
 估衣 ku4 i1, old clothes, the word ku1 is here pronounced ku4.
 打火 ta3 huo3, to strike the fire-stone to get fire. matches are not yet in general use.
 毛家灣 mao2 chia2 uan1'r Mao family's corner-name of place.
 扎根刺 cha1 ken1 tz'u4, to be picked by a thorn, a needle.
 This phrase is merely introduced for the sake of rhyming with the next verse.
 護國寺 hu4 kuo2 ssu4, temple for the protection of the State.
 斗 tou3, a willow peck, a chinese measure.
 新街口 hsin2 chie1 k'ou3, Mouth of the new street, name of a street.
 大糖 ta4 t'ang2, sticks of sugar sold to children.
 蔣家房 chiang3 chia1 fang2,"the house of the Chiang family" name of street.
 安煙袋 an1 yen1 tai4, to fit the mouth piece of pipe. In the afore-said street there is a pipe-shop.
 王奶奶 "the old lady Wang" there is a temple dedicated to her. She was a very good and religious woman who lived during the present dynasty and who after her death was thought to have become a saint spirit, so that temples were erected to her.
 啃 k'en3, to gnaw this is naturally purely imaginary as a the good lady had lost all her teeth a very long time before.
 火藥局 huo3 yao4 chü2, the powder factory.
 兩頭兒多 liang2 t'ou2'r tuo, each part has the same length.
 多 is here for 長 ch'ang2.
 王八窩 uang2 pa1 uo1, a nest of turtles this imaginary lair is thought to give a saucy and witty end to the song.
 躥湯鍋[*躦湯鍋] ts'uan1 t'ang1 kuo1, they jump in the broth kettle.
 These words are purely absurd.

 Near the Ping-tso-men they draw long-bows--next there is the temple Ch'ao-t'ien-kung--"Ch'ao-t'ien-kung" is written on the temple in big characters--next there is the temple of the white Pagoda.--In the white pagoda people come to give Buddha a red jacket--next there is the Horse mart bridge.--Near the Horse mart bridge, take three jumps--and there is the temple of T'i-wang.--near this temple, shake the gourd--next there are the four arches.--At the east of the four arches--and at the west of the four arches--and under the four arches old clothes are sold--you ask how much for these old clothes?--you strike a light smoke a pipe--you go on and get to the "Corner of the Mao family".--Near the corner of the Mao family one is picked by a thorn--after that comes a "temple for the protection of the State"--near the "temple for the protection of the State" they sell large willow-pecks--after that there comes "the mouth of the new street"--near the "mouth of the new street", they sell sugar sticks--after that is "the house of the Chiang family--in "the house of the Chiang family" they fit together smoking pipes--after that there is the temple of old lady Wang.--Old lady Wang gnaws the peel of a melon--next comes the powder factory--near the powder factory they sell steel needles--after that there is the wall--the wall is of the same lenght on both sides--after that comes a nest of turtles--in fine weather they warm that shells in the sunshine--and in bad weather they spring in the hoth-pot.
 [* "馬市橋" was originally erred to print as "馬布橋" in the verses. 晴天晒蓋 was originally written as 晴天曬蓋. Changed for the sake of simplised to its searching. see also 平001-001, 歌2-34,8.]

◎V115-159 紫不紫/大海茄/八月裏供的是兔兒爺/自來白/自來紅/月光馬兒/供當中/毛豆枝兒亂烘烘/雞冠子花兒紅裏個紅/圓月兒的西瓜皮兒青/月亮爺喫的哈哈笑/今夜的光兒分外明。

 The first two verses are the common t'ou2-tzu which has nothing to do with what follows.
 海茄 hai3 ch'ie2, the egg plant fruit.
 The Chinese pretend to see in the moon a hare, to which they give offerings on the fifteenth of the 8th moon. This here is called 兔兒爺 t'u4'r ye2.
 自來白 tzu4 lai2 pai2,"naturally white" a sort of white cake.
 自來紅 tzu4 lai2 hung2,"naturally red"--a cake with sugar on it.
 馬兒 ma3'r, a picture on which is drawn the moon. Inside the moon the hare is sun piling drugs in a mortar. This picture is burned after the offering.
 當中 tang1 chung1, in the middle.
 毛豆枝兒 soy beans are offered to the rabbit, as this animal is very fond of this food.
 亂烘烘 luan4 hung1 hung1, disorderly irregularly, said of the beans on the branches.
 雞冠子 chi1 kuan1 tzu, the cock comb flower.
 紅裏個紅 hung2 li3 ko4 hung2, "red in the red" very red.
 圓月兒 yüan2 yŭe4'r, like the round moon. The water melon which is called on this occasion 團圓西瓜 t'uan2 yüan2 hsi1 kua1(the meeting melon) is cut in as many slices as there are persons in the family.

 Purple or not purple--the big fruit of the egg-plant?--In the eighth moon Lord Rabbit is worshipped--white cakes--brown cakes--the picture of the moon--is worshipped and placed in the middle--the soy beans are in disorder--the cockcomb flowers are of the deepest-red--the peel of the melon offered to the moon is dark--the Lord moon eats and laughs heartily--to-night the moonlight is brighter than usual.

◎V116-161 說開船就開船/開了船下江南/江南有一個大王廟/大王廟一邊兒一個和尚/一邊兒一個旗桿/今年有一對子戲/過年跑馬上刀山/刀山上有根線兒/兩根紅兩根藍/男的搬的朝天鐙/女的搬的鐙朝天。

 跑馬 or 跑馬獅的 p'ao3 ma3 hsie4 ti, circus riders.
 上刀山 shang4 tao1 shan1, lit. "to climb on the sword mountain" is the name for an exercise seen very often in our circuses that of jumping from one side of a row of standing swords to the other.
 朝天鐙 ch'ao2 t'ien1 teng4, "the staff looking towards the sky" other feat of desterity[*?] which consists in raising one's leg up perpendicularly turning the foot-sole to the sky.
 鐙朝天 teng4 ch'ao2 tien1, the same phrase as before in a different form.

 We say "set sail" and the ship starts--the ship is in motion and we go downwards to Kiang-nan--in Kiang-nan there is a big temple to the great king of heaven--at each side of the Tai-wang-miao there is a priest--and at each side a flagstaff--this year there are a couple of theatrical performances--and next year there will be circusriders and "jumping on the swords"--on the row of swords there are four threads--two of them are red and two are blue--the men perform the feat of "the stirrup looking to the sky"--and the women perform the feat of the "stirrup which looks to the sky".

◎V117-162 拉拉穀的車三哥哥/女孩兒上車娘也哭/叫聲娘娘你別哭/等着我三娘坐齊了哭/芝麻稭兒樹/掛鈴鐺/想我三娘一陣風/想我三娘打門鐘/蒺藜開花蒺藜找/誰想親娘誰知道。

 拉拉穀 la1 la1 ku3, sort of a locust. The beginning of the song is hard to translate. In the second verse there begins to be light.
 三娘 san1 niang2, perhaps it is meant her uncles wife, the uncle being the third in his family.
 坐齊了 tsuo4 ch'i2 la, to sit together, in full number.
 芝麻稭兒樹 chih1 ma2 chie1'r shu4, the sesamus plant. This verse and following form a sort of 頭子 in the very middle of the song, and it is hard to guess why a bell is spoken of as being attached to that plant.
 一陣風 i1 chen4 feng1, my thought goes as quick as a gust of wind.
 打門鐘 ta3 men2 chung1,it seems to me as if I were striking the door-bell.
 蒺藜花兒 chi2 li2 hua1'r, caltrop flowers.

 The locust cart and the third brother(?)--when I, the girl sit down in the cart, my mother also weeps--I say once: mother, mother do not weep--wait till the third aunt sits also and then weep--on the sesamum-tree there hangs a bell--thinking of my aunt my thought travels as quick as a guest of wind--thinking of my aunt methinks I am striking the door-bell at home.--where the caltrops open their flowers there you may look for them--only those can understand me who long so for their mother.
 [* 蒺藜 was not "caltrop(Trapa natans) flowers". it is the flowers of Tribulus terrestris. their seed fruit like caltrop.]

◎V118-164 小三兒小三兒/甚麽打拌兒/青洋縐的褲子/白汗褟兒/白汗褟兒鎖着狗牙兒/騎馬穗兒/擰鍋圈兒/青辮穗兒/緊辮花兒/左邊掖着晚香玉/右邊掖着藹康尖兒/魚白襪子一道臉兒/雙臉兒鞋一道線兒。

 The toilet of a young lady is here described.
 鎖 suo3, to hem clothes, to work a sort of embroidery at the edge of a dress.
 狗牙兒 kou3 ya2'r, pattern of embroidery in form of small triangles resembling dog's teeth.
 騎馬穗兒 chi2 ma3 suei4'r, a row of cut hair left standing just before the plaited hair.
 擰鍋圈兒 ning2 kuo1 ch'üan1'r, small braids plaited on children's heads.
 辮穗兒 pien4 suei4'r, the silk tassel at the end of a pigtail.
 辮花兒 pien4 hua1'r, the knots of a braid.
 晚香玉 uan3 hsiang14, the tuberose.
 藹康尖兒 a shoot of Ocymum basilicum(sweet basil).
 魚白 yü2 pai2, as white as a fish skin white with a greenish shade of colour.
 一道臉兒 i1 tao4 lien3'r, "white one surface" this means that no seam is to be seen on the socks.
 一道線兒 i1 tao4 hsien4'r, the two leather strings which come on the shoe are as thin as a thread.

 Small San'r, small San'r--what dress are you wearing?--I have got dark crape trousers--and a white shirt--on the white shirt are embroidered "dog's teeth"--on the head I have a row of standing hair--and some small braids--a dark tassel for my pigtail--and the pigtail is plaited very tight--on the left of my hair I have stuck a tuberose--and on the right a head of sweet basil--I have too white socks with no seam--and my shoes have leather strings as thin as a thread.

◎V119-165 隔着牆兒扔切糕/棗兒豆兒都掉了/隔着牆兒扔磚頭/砸了妞兒的兩把兒頭/隔着牆兒扔票子/怎麽知道姑娘沒落子。

 I do not think that this song can be properly understood by children, but the fact is that numbers of them sing these verses the meaning of which is rather equivocal. It alludes to a man who tries to win a young girl in different comical ways.
 切糕 ch'ie1 kao1, slices of pudding made with flower, dates and leng beans.
 兩把兒頭 liang3 pa1'r t'ou2, "a head with two handles" chinese name for the manchu women's head-gear. This leads one to suppose that this rhyme originated from bannermen.
 沒落子 mei2 lao4 tzu, means literally has not a halting-place, a refuge-and then, to be in a miserable condition, to be poor, not to know where to go.

 From outside the wall he throws slices of pudding--the dates and the long beans all fell to the ground.--From outside the wall he throws lumps of bricks--and has broken the girl's manchu head-gear--from outside the wall he throws bank-notes--how does he know that the girl has no means?

◎V120-166 廟裏的和尚拉大鎖/挨家兒搖鈴鐺/廟裏的和尚化月米/挨家兒嘆十聲/廟裏的和尚典了旗桿賣了廟/摩勒魚兒道袍全不要/廟裏的和尚擺小攤兒/大把抓的落花生/廟裏的和尚睡不着覺/想着隔壁兒大姑娘/廟裏的和尚拿大頂/踒了脖子怎麽念經/廟裏的和尚燒香不打罄/叮兒噹兒的打茶盅/廟裏的和尚留頭髮/一個字兒的不修行。

 This song is one of the less devotional towards the buddhist priests and is widely sung in Peking by children and grown people.
 大鎖 ta4 suo3, a large chain which the priests fasten to their neck and drag around when travelling about to collect alms. Sometimes, in order to excite pity and devotion, this chain is made so heavy that the help of a second man is required to drag it along.
 挨家兒 ai2 chia1'r, from one house to the other in succession.
 化月米 hua4 yüe4 mi3, to collect the monthly rice. Many families are in the habit of giving every month a quantity of rice to certain temples.
 The first and fifteenth of the month a priest goes around with a coolie who bears a barrel to collect the offerings.
 摩勒魚兒 muo2 lo12'r, a wooden drum in the shape of a fish head this instrument is beaten during the ceremonies, and is also taken round by almsbegging priests who carry it on their back tied by a cord.
 道袍 tao4 p'ao2, the priests ceremonial dress.
 落花生 luo4 hua1 sheng1, ground nuts.
 拿大頂 na2 ta4 ting3, to stand on one's head, as jugglers do.
 罄 ch'ing4, a copper instrument struck during a religious service.
 一個字兒 i1 ko4 tzu4'r, "in one word" altogether, with no exception.
 修行 hsiu1 hsing2, to perfect and reform one's character, as chinese priests are supposed to do in their temples.

 The priest of the temple drags a heavy chain--and goes from one house to the other ringing a bell--the priest of the temple goes out for the monthly rice--and from house to house he sighs ten times,--the priest in the temple has mortgaged the flag-staffs and has sold the temple--and he does not want either the fish-drum or the ceremonial dress--the priest in the temple has prepared a small fruit stall--(and says)"ground nuts, a big handful of them!--The priest in the temple cannot sleep--because he is thinking of the neighbour's elder daughter--the priest in the temple stands on his head--but having sprained his neck how could he read the sacred books?--The priest in the temple does not strike the copperdrum--but ding dong! he strikes instead the tea-cup--the priest in the temple lets his hair grow--and does not care a bit about the improvement of his moral conduct.

◎V121-169 膠泥瓣兒/使勁兒摔/刻了爺爺兒/刻奶奶兒/爺爺兒戴着一頂困秋帽/奶奶兒戴着一枝鳳頭釵。

 This song is sung by children who play at making mud-pies.
 膠泥 chiao1 ni2, the clay mixed up with water becomes sticky like glue.
 泥瓣兒 ni2 pan4'r, a block of clay.
 使勁摔 shih3 ching4'r shuai1, cast it with force on the ground. Before the clay is fit to be put into the moulds, it must be rendered softer and that result is obtained by beating the clay repeatedly on the ground.
 刻, read here k'o1 and not k'o4, to mould. The moulds sold to the boys in the streets are of different forms and some of them have the form of a man or of a woman.
 困秋帽 k'un4 ch'iu1 mao4, an old round hat.
 鳳頭釵 feng1 t'ou2 ch'ai1, a hair-pin for women it means literally a phoenix-head pin.

 The sticky clay blocks--first we throw them on the ground, and then we mould out a gentleman--we mould out a lady--the gentleman wears on old round hat--and the lady a phoenix-head hairpin.

◎V122-170 祭竈祭竈新年來到/老頭子過來要氈帽/老婆子過來要裹脚/小淘氣兒過來要花炮。

 These words are pronounced while sacrificing to the god of the stoves near the end of the year.
 裹脚 kuo3 chiao3, ankle bands for ladies trousers.
 At the New-year and the days which precede it, every body tries to dress well and to look his best.
 小淘氣兒 hsiao3 t'ao2-ch'i4'r, general nickname given to children meaning the small impertinent.
 花炮 hua1 p'ao4, crackers.

 Sacrifice to the god of the stoves, Sacrifice to the god of the stoves, the new-year has arrived--the old man comes over and wants a felt-hat--the old lady comes over and wants anklebands--the impertinent youngster comes over and wants crackers.
 [* variation, see also CMG136-152 新年來到糖瓜祭竈….]

◎V123-171 滴滴滴/上草垜/他媽養活獨一個/金盆洗/銀盆臥/一聘聘到山東克/十個公/十個婆/十個小叔子管着我/叫他井臺兒去打水/勒的小手兒怪疼得/樹上鳥/吱兒扎的叫/受苦受難誰知道。

 滴滴滴 ti1 ti1 ti1, imitates the noise made by a chicken.
 克 k'o4, an unusual pronunciation of the word 去 ch'ü4, to go. It is specially used by bannermen and old fashioned people.
 小叔子 hsiao3 shu2 tzŭ, husband's younger brothers.
 井臺兒 ching3 t'ai2'r, the well step.
 勒手 lei1 shou3 "to have one's hands strangled" that is to say to hurt one's hands by pulling with a rope.
 吱兒扎 chih1'r cha1,is supposed to imitate the birds chattering.
 難 nan4, in the fourth tone, means adversity, trouble.

 The chicken screaming--flies on the grass-stack.--Her mother had reased[*reared] only her--she washed in a gold basin--she slept in a silver basin--and then they married her in the Shan-tung--(it looks as if she had)ten fathers-in-law--and ten mothers-in-law--and ten brothers-in-law to watch her--now they let her go to the well to draw water--and her small hands are swollen with the great pain--the birds on the trees--chatter merrily--who knows that I am suffering bitterness and pain?

◎V124-172 月亮爺/亮堂堂/街坊的姑娘要嫁粧/錠兒粉/棒兒香/棉花胭脂二百張。

 錠兒粉 ting4'r fen3, an inferior quality of cosmetic powder in square pieces.
 棒兒香 pang4'r hsiang1, an incense stick.
 棉花胭脂 mien2 hua1 yen1 chih1, small cotton strip of cloth imbued with cosmetic rouge, to paint women's lips.

 The father-moon--is bright and shining--the neighbour's girl wants her bridal presents--squares of cosmetic powder--incense sticks--and two hundred rouge cotton-strips.

◎V125-173 松枝兒樹/掛鈴鐺/親娘賣我在小船兒上/&M075474;子米飯/小魚兒湯/端起飯碗兒想親娘/擱下飯碗兒上後艙/哭了一聲哥哥妹妹誰還想誰/親娘想我一陣風/我想親娘在夢中。

 The first two verses form the common introduction.
 The word 松枝兒樹 sung1 chih1'r shu4, means literally a fir-branched tree, that is the same as 松樹 sung1 shu4, a fir-tree.
 &M075474;子米 suo1-tzŭ mi3, a coarse quality of rice the character is not to be found in any dictionary, but is currently written above. The words are supposed to be uttered by a small boy who has been sold by his mother to be a small servant on a boat.
 一陣風 i1 chen4 feng1, here, as quick as a gale of wind.

 On the fir-tree--there is a small bell--my own mother has sold me on board a boat--(I eat here) course rice--and fish broth--taking the rice-bowl to my mouth I think of my mother--when I lay down the rice-bowl then I go to the stern rooms--and I shed some tears saying: brothers, sisters, which of us thinks of each other?--the care of my mother for me has been as fleeting as a squall of wind--but I think of my mother in my dreams.
 [* "&M075474;子米" is now generally written as "梭子米".]

◎V126-175 黃豆粒兒/圓上圓/養活丫頭不值錢/三塊豆腐二兩酒/送在婆婆大門口/婆婆說脚也大臉又醜/公公說留着罷留着罷/燒茶煮飯也用他。

 黃豆 huang2 tou4, a small sort of yellow haricot (Phaseolus flavus).
 圓上圓 yüan2 shang4 yüan2, "round on round" that means very much round.
 The song is taken from the country and that may be observed in some phrases different from the pure Pekinese. For instance the last verse says: 燒茶煮飯 shao1 ch'a2 chu3 fan4, instead of 沏茶煮飯 ch'i1 ch'a2 chu3 fan4, to prepare tea and food.

 The yellow haricot--is completely round--bearing a daughter, she is worth no money--just as much as two bits of bean-curd and two ounces of wine.--when we send her to her mother-in-law's house--the mother-in-law says: her feet are large and her face is ugly--the father-in-law says: let her stay,let her stay!--she can be useful for boiling tea and cooking food.
 [* A ballad identified by the phrase of "養活丫頭不值錢". See also 平136-072; "大白豆,做飯甜…", and also serch the phrase; "養活閨女不賺錢". ]

●V127-176 松柏枝兒/碾子軋/我跟姐姐同出嫁/姐姐嫁在南山裏/妹妹嫁在北窪裏。

 柏樹 pai3 shu4, the cypress. The branches of fir and cypress are burned in some offerings to the spirits, but here are second verse has no rational meaning.

 The branches of fir and cypress--are crushed by a stone roller(?)--I and my elder sister both marry--my elder sister will marry in the mountains of the South--and I will marry in the Northern bogs.
 [* "北窪裏" was originally mis-printed to "比窪裏". Corrected by『北平歌謠』(張192-383).]

◎V128-176 一個毽兒/拍兩瓣兒/打花鼓兒/繞花線兒/裏拐外拐/八仙過海/九十九個一百。

 The shuttle-cok is kicked by boys but the girls push the ball with their hands and this is called 拍 p'ai1. Sometimes while playing they sing some rhymes, one of which I present to the reader.
 拍兩瓣兒 p'ai1 liang3 pan'4r, is struck so hard as to be broken in two pieces.
 打花鼓兒 ta3 hua1 ku3, sort of musical amusement consisting of a song accompanied by drum beating performed generally by girls. This drum beating is accompanied by various evolutions of the arms, non unlike the movement of pushing the shuttle-cok.--
 繞花線兒 jiao4 hua1 hsien4'r, another game. The player places the shuttle-cok on his foot, kicks it in the air, awaits its falling down, and just before it touches the ground, he turns the foot down round it and kicks it up again.
 裏拐外拐 liu3 kuai3 uai4 kuai3, pushing inside and pushing outside the shuttle-cok.

 A shuttle-cok--is kicked up and broken in two pieces--beat the drum--pick up the shuttle-cock.--push inside, push outside--the eight genii cross the sea--ninety nine and a hundred.
 [* except 平138-073, many of variations says the 2nd phrase as: "踢兩半兒". I think this is "girl's version" as above note says. and when boys were singing, it would be called as "踢" ]

◎V129-178 門兒敲得梆梆/狗兒咬得汪汪/我說一聲誰/騎着毛驢兒/扛着米/要粗的/要細的/量糠兒的/簸凈兒的。

 梆梆 pang1 pang1, imitates the knock at the door.
 汪汪 uang4 uang4, the barking of a dog.
 毛驢兒 mao22'r, a common name for an ass, instead of the simple 驢兒 lü2'r. A slang word for it is 毛團兒 mao2 t'uan2'r here the rice-seller is supposed to advertise his wares in the last four verses.
 量糠兒的 liang2 k'ang1'r ti2, rice and husks together, rice which has not been winnowed.
 簸凈兒的 puo3 ching4'r ti, clean rice with no husks.

 People knock at the door--and the dog barks--I ask once, who is there?--(the rice seller) rides on ass--and bears the rice on his back.--(he says) do you want coarse rice?--do you want fine rice?--here is rice and husk,--and here is winnowed rice.

◎V130-179 小陶氣兒/跳鑽鑽兒/腦瓜兒上梳着個小蠟千兒/一人學了八宗藝/撞鐘踢球外帶打嘎。

 跳鑽鑽兒 t'iao4 tsan1 tsan1'r, hopping and jumping.
 蠟千兒 la4 ch'ien1'r, a chinese candlestick. When boys have not yet hair enough to comb a pigtail, sometimes their hair is bound up in a small plait which stands perpendicularly on the top of the head.
 八宗藝 pa1 tsung2 i4, eight kinds of abilities.
 撞鐘 chuang4 chung4, lit."to strike the bell". A game practised by boys who each throw a piece of cash against a wall. The greater or lesser distance to which the cash rebounds from the wall makes one the winner or loser.
 外帶 uai4 tai4, and furthermore.

 The impertinent youngster--goes hopping and jumping--he has a "candle" toupet on his head--he himself has mastered eight sorts of abilities--he can play at "bell-striking" at foot-ball and also at wood ball.

◎V131-180 打羅兒篩/曳羅兒篩/該我的麵錢不拿來/多會兒拿來/逛燈拿來/甚麽燈/小脚兒燈/一登登了個大窟窿。

 逛燈 kuang4 teng1, a festival from the 13th to the 17th of the first moon. In the evening lanterns are hung out by shops and private houses.
 小脚兒燈 hsiao3 chiao3'r teng. A lantern shaped in the form of a chinese small foot. The introduction to this song is identical with another translated before.
 登 is pronounced like "lantern" therefore the pun.

 Strike the sieve and sift--drag the sieve and sift--you owe me money for flour and do not pay me--when will you bring it here?--At the festival of Lanterns I'll bring it--what lantern?--The small foot lantern.--walking on it I made a big hole in it.

◎V132-181 小大姐纔十八/滿臉的鋸子大疤拉/桃兒粉/任意兒搽/胭脂抹的血&M075477;胡拉/梳着一個蘇州纂兒/鬢角兒斜插一枝花/金蓮多麽大/橫量二寸八。

 小大姐 hsiao3 ta4 chie3, the young lady. The picture is humourous.
 鋸子 chü1 tzu, "a saw" it refers to the fact that after the small pox the skin of the face sometimes is glued together thus forming a scar and a small pimple on it.
 桃兒粉 t'ao2'r fen3, red cosmetic powder sold in peach like beads.
 血&M075477;胡拉, read almost in one word hsie3 ssŭ-hu-la. I have only adopted these characters in order to write down the sound as spoken the general meaning is to look as if besmeared with blood--橫量 heng2 liang2, measuring the size of the foot. The smallest foot is three inches.

 The young lady--has just reached her eigh-teenth year--she has the face full of pimples and scars--with red cosmetic--she rubs all over the face to her heart's desire and then she combs her hair into a Soo-chow chignon--near the temple she sticks a flower in her hair--how big is her foot?--altogether two inches and eight tenths of an inch.
 [* A part was lost in his translation. Afterwards in 張035-069 translated the part from 桃兒粉 to 血&M075477;胡拉 as these; "With white cosmetic she rubs all over the face to her heart's desire. Then with rouge she makes her face as red as blood.". ]

◎V133-182 我的兒/我的姣/三年不見長的這麽高/騎着我的馬/拿着我的刀/扛着我的案板賣切糕。

 My son--my treasure--during the three years that I have not seen you, you have grown so tall--riding my horse--taking my sword--bearing on your shoulder my kneading-board and selling slices of pudding.
 [* Many collection cited this rhyme, but variations were few. 歌2-19,5(1931.10.10)「河北兒歌」"我的兒,我的姣,三年不見長的這樣高,騎着我的馬,抗着我的案板賣切糕。", 柿崎進『中国の民謠と童謠』(1943) p.308; "我的兒,我的姣,三年不見長的眞高,騎着我的馬,拿着我的刀,扛着板子賣切糕。" ]

◎V134-183 豆芽菜/水淜淜/誰家的媳婦兒打公公/公公拿着拐棍兒拐/媳婦兒拿着袖口兒甩。

 豆芽菜 tou4 ya2 ts'ai4, bean sprouts commonly eaten in China.
 水澎澎[*水淜淜] shuei3 p'eng1 p'eng, flowing with water these sprouts are put in water to keep them fresh.

 The bean sprouts--are dripping with water --who is the wife who dares to beat her father-in-law? --the father-in-law beats her with his stick --and the woman only lets her sleeve down(with anger).
 [* "水淜淜" was also written as "水漰漰." see also CMG082-092, 平092-048. ]

◎V135-184 秦始皇/砌城牆/牆頭兒矮/磴兒窄/擋着達子過不來/後來有個孟姜女/千里來尋夫/對着牆一哭/哭了一聲天兒/哭塌了半邊兒。

 秦始皇 ch'in2 shih3 huang2, the emperor who built the great wall and who said to have had buried in it all the men who died during its building.
 城牆 ch'eng2 ch'iang2 "the fortified wall" the the full name is 萬里長城 uan3 li3 ch'ang2 cheng2.
 磴兒窄 teng4'r chai3, the layers of brick are so thin that a man is able to creep on the wall as up stairs.
 孟姜女 Meng4 chiang33. A beautiful woman whose husband, although a hsiou4 ts'ai2, was forced to work at the wall being in delicate health he died and was buried in the brickwork. When his wife came for him and heard of his end, she knelt by the wall and wept invoking Heaven. She so moved Heaven that the wall crumbled away at the spot and showed her husband's remains: she piously exhumed them, and took them with her. She was afterwards rewarded by the Emperor who granted her a precious belt. But she was so oppressed with grief that at last she ran her head against a wall and died.

 The Emperor Shih-huang--built the Great Wall--the top of the wall was low--and the steps were short--to prevent the Tartars from crossing--There was Meng chiang nü--who came from a thousant miles away to find her husband--then wept in front of the wall--wept and cried O Heaven!--and at her tears the side of the wall fell down.

●V136-185 蹊蹊蹺/換把刀/刀不快/切青菜/葉兒青/換把弓/弓沒頭/換個牛/牛沒甲/換匹馬/馬沒鞍/上南山/南山一窩兔兒/剝了皮兒穿條褲兒。

 This rhyme has no sense all through.
 蹊蹺 hsi1 ch'iao4, extraordinary, uncommon at least it is the only meaning and writing which may reasonably agree with the pronunciation hsi1 ch'iao4.

 Very extraordinary--change a sword--the sword does not cut--hash vegetables--their leaves are green--change a bow--the bow has no head--change an ox--the ox has no scales--change a horse--the horse has no saddle--go to the South hills--in the southern hills there is a nest of hares--from which we take the skin to make a pair of trousers.
 [* "切青菜,葉兒青" would be an error of "切青菜,菜兒青".]

◎V137-186 白塔寺/有白塔/塔上有磚沒有瓦/塔臺兒上裂了一道縫/魯班爺下來鋸上塔。

 Near the P'ing-tso-men there is a pagoda already spoken of in rhyme No.114. During this dynasty it threatened to collapse and showed a great crack. The popular tradition says that just at that time somebody dressed like a mason walked round and round the place shouting the words.
 鋸大傢伙兒 chü1 ta4 chia1 huo3'r "mend the big thing". A few days after, with great astonishment the candid Pekinese observed that the crack in the pagoda had been repaired and on the fresh work was visible the mark of a mason's trowel. The popular fancy nowhere so wildly developed as in China, directly connected this mysterious piece of masonry with the workman's words and recognized in him Lu3 pan1 ye2, the Genius protector of masons and carpenters. As to the historical truth of the work so well executed, it may be explained in two ways: either the work had been done by government order and at an uncommon time of the day: or more probably that crack had ever existed.

 At the temple of Pai-t'a-ssu, there is a white pagoda--on the pagoda there are bricks but not tiles--on the pagoda's pedestal a gaping crack appeared--and Lu-pan-ye himself came down to repair it.

◎V138-187 麻子鬼/偸涼水/搬倒了缸/砸了腿/你賠我的缸/我賠你的腿。

 麻子鬼 ma2 tzu kuei4, is said jocularly about a child much marked by smallpox.

 The "small pox devil"--stealing the water--has upset the bucket--and has broken his leg--you repay me for my bucket--and I will repay you for your leg.

◎V139-188 喜花搯來戴滿頭/喜酒兒斟上嘔幾嘔/喜鳥兒落在房簷兒上/哨的是喜報三元獨占鰲頭。

 The hsi3 or joy here alluded, to is the approval at the examinations.
 嘔 ou1, means to drink, to glup down.
 三元 san1 yüan2: a candidate who has taken the highest places at the examinations.
 These words are pronounced by the joy-messengers 報喜的 pao4 hsi3 ti, when they reach the door of the successful candidate.
 獨占鰲頭 tu2 chan4 ao1 t'ou2,(the man who has been successful at the last Hanlin[*翰林] examinations is said) to have alone occupied the Ao-fish's head.

 Here are the flowers of joy, pick them up and cover your head with them--here is the wine of joy, pour it out and drink--the birds of joy come to stop under the eaves of the roof--and the news they bear is: the first successful candidate at the examinations.

◎V140-189 錐帮子兒/納底子兒/掙了二升小米子兒/蒸蒸烙烙/喫他娘的一頓犒勞。

 This rhyme speaks jocularly of a little fellow who is supposed to work in order to give himself a treat.
 小米 hsiao3 mi3, millet.
 ―蒸 cheng1, to steam.
 烙 lao4, to fry in a pan.
 犒勞 k'ao4 lao2, a treat given on some lucky days, to soldiers or workmen.

 (The boy)bores the heelband of the shoe--and stitches the shoe sole--he has earned two pecks of millet--after a good deal of steaming and frying--he eats a good meal given to him by his mother as a reward.
 [* 錐帮子 was originally written as 錐幫子.]

◎V141-190 月亮爺/明煌煌/騎着大馬去燒香/大馬拴在梧桐樹/小馬拴在廟門兒上。

 明煌煌 ming2 huang2 huang2, extremely bright.
 梧桐 u2 t'ung2, the Streculia platanifolia(Catalpa).

 The Lord moon--how bright he is--on horse-back I go to burn incense--the big horse is bound to the Catalpa tree--and the small horse to the temple door.
 [* Streculia platanifolia(Catalpa) is now generally named Firmiana platanifolia or F.simplex.]

◎V142-190 高高山上一窩豬/兩口子打架孩子哭/孩子孩子你別哭/等着我打那個老丈夫。

 The first verse is a good sample of those extraordinary introductions.

 On a very high mountain there is a lair of pigs--a husband and a wife quarrel and the child weeps--child, child, do not weep--wait till I thrash this old husband.

◎V143-191 廟門兒對廟門兒/裏頭住着個小妞人兒/白臉蛋兒/紅嘴唇兒/扭扭捏捏愛死個人兒。

 扭扭捏捏 niu3 niu3 nie4 nie4, to walk in a sweet and graceful manner.

 A door of the temple is opposite to a door of the temple--there lives a small girl--with white cheeks--and red lips--she walks so nicely that she makes people die of love.
 [* see also 平162-086,平166-088.]

◎V144-192 鳥鳥鳥/身量兒高/要喫飯/先毛腰/要打架/用手抄/要洗臉/拿水澆。

 鳥, read here niao1 and not niao3--the word has no sense and is purely phonetical.
 毛腰 mao2 yao1, the person spoken of being so tall, must stoop down to take his food.
 抄 ch'ao1(written some times when in this sense with another vulgar character) means here to lift up somebody by catching him under the armpits.
 澆 chiao, to water, to poor down water.

 Hallo!--he is really tall--when he wants to eat--he must stoop down--when he wants to fight-- he lifts his adversary under the arms--when he wants to wash his face--he poures water down on it(rather than to stop down to the basin).

◎V145-192 這個人生來性兒急/清晨早起去趕集/錯穿了綠布褲/倒騎着一頭驢。

 綠布褲 lü4 pu4 k'u4, trousers made of green cloth, trousers for a woman. The man in his haste had put on his wife's trousers.
 倒騎 tao4 ch'i2, to ride with the head turned to the animal's tail.

 This man is very hasty by nature--early in the morning he started for the fair--and he had put on by mistake his wife's trousers--and was riding with his head towards the donkey's tail.

◎V146-193 窮太太兒/抱着個肩兒/喫完了飯兒/遶了個灣兒/又買檳榔/又買煙兒。

 The poor woman--folds her arms on her breast--when she has finished taking her food--she goes out for a stroll--and buys betelnuts--and tobacco.

◎V147-194 是誰拍我的門兒/小狗兒汪汪叫/親家太太來到了/忙着穿花鞋/褲腿兒又掉了。

 Who knocks at the door?--the small dog barks--a lady relation has arrived--in a hurry I put on my embrodered shoes--but my ankle bands have fallen down.

◎V148-194 大哥哥二哥哥/這個年頭兒怎麽過/棒子麵兒二百多/扁豆開花兒一呀兒喲。

年頭 nien2 t'ou2, the crops of the year.
怎麽過 tsen3 mo kuo4, how will it be possible to live?
棒子麵 pang4-tzu-mien4 flour of Indian corn.
二百多 eur4 pai3 tuo1, more than two pai for a chin1[*斤], a chinese pound.
 The last verse has no sense and ends the rhyme as the person tries to divert the attention to another subject.

 First elder brother--second elder brother--with these crops how will it be possible to live?--Indian corn flour is sold at two cents a pound!--the bean plant opens its flowers, Hallo!

◎V149-195 正月裏正月正/七個老西兒去逛燈/反穿皮襖還嫌冷/河裏的王老八他怎麽過冬。

 反穿皮襖 fan3 ch'uan1 p'i2 ao2, wearing the fur coat with the fur outside, to feel warmer. Here the words are said to have a laugh at the Shan-hsi men.
 王老八 uang2 lao3 pa1 is instead of 老王八, the old turtle.

 In the first month, in the first month--seven Shan-hsi people go out in the streets to see the lanterns.--they wear their furs outside and yet they feel cold-- but look at the turtles in the river, how do they manage to live through the winter?

◎V150-196 小小子兒開舗兒/開開舗兒兩扇門兒/小桌子兒/小椅子兒/烏木筷子兒小碟子兒。

 烏木 u1 mu4, ebony wood.

 The small boy has opened a shop--he has opened a shop with two front doors--with small tables--and small chairs--and chop-sticks of ebony wood.

◎V151-196 小姑娘作一夢/夢見婆婆來下定/眞金條/裹金條/扎花兒裙子繡花兒襖。

 下定 hsia4 ting4, the future mothe-in-law goes to the bride's parents and presents the bridal gifts.
 After this ceremony the marriage is considered fixed and the cannot on any account be betrothed to another man.
 金條 chin1 t'iao2, short golden rods sold in the gold-shops called 金店 chin1 tien4. Eachrod may weigh generally from one to four chinese ounces(liang[*兩]).
 裹金條 kuo3 chin1 t'iao2, sham gold rods given sometimes as gifts.

 The small girl--has had a dream--she has dreamt of her mother-in-law coming to give her the bridal gift--real gold rods--and sham gold rods--a grown with stitched flowers--and a cloak with embroidered flowers.

◎V152-197 養活豬喫口肉/養活狗會看家/養活貓會拿耗子/養活你這丫頭作甚麽。

 These words are playfully said by parents to their small daughters.
 一口肉 i1 k'ou3 jou4, a mouth ful of meat, some meat.

 If we keep a pig--it is in order to enjoy a good piece of meat--if we keep a dog--it is in order to have him watch the house--if we keep a cat--it is to have him eat the mice--but to keep a maid like you--what is the use of it?

◎V153-198 喜兒喜兒/賣涼粉兒/砸了罐子/賠了本兒/娶了個媳婦兒/一條腿兒。

 喜兒 hsi3'r, may be shortened from 喜雀 hsi3 ch'iao3, a magpie, but here it is used as a common nickname for children, meaning "joy".
 涼粉兒 liang2 fen3'r, fresh powder, is white bean-flour which in summer time is kept by merchants in an ice-box to sell it cool.
 罐子 kuan4 tzü3, a pot taken around by the bean-flour sellers, in which they keep a sort of sauce to season their ware before selling it to customers.
 一條腿兒 i1 t'iao2 t'uei3'r, (with) one leg.
 It must however be noticed that this phrase also means in Pekinese language "very harmoniously, very peacefully" when speaking of a loving husband and wife: as the two persons were only one, tied one to the other, having one leg in two and therefore with one will and wish.

 Joy, Joy--sells cool bean-flour--but he has broken the sauce jar--and has forfeited his capital--now he has married a wife--with one leg(or, and he is very happy with her).

◎V154-199 鼓靠着鼓來/鑼靠鑼/新娶的媳婦兒靠公婆/月亮爺靠着娑羅兒樹/牛郎織女緊靠天河。

 These first verses refer to the ceremonies of a marriage procession, so often mentioned before.--According to chinese folk-lore it is related that in the moon there is a big tree called 娑羅兒樹 suo1 luo2'r shu4(Shorea robusta) on which the father moon leans. The word solo is derived from the sanscrit sala. In the first two verses the word k'ao, to recline, to lean, is used in the sense of to be contiguous, near, in great number.
 牛郎 niu2 lang2 or also 牽牛 ch'ien1 niu2, the constellation of the Herdboy.
 織女 chih13, the Spinning damsel, another constellation. The former and the latter are placed each at one side of the milky way the Chinese consider them to be husband and wife and say that once a year they succeed in seeing each other by a curious expedient.
 The magpies form themselves into a bridge over the milky way(天河 t'ien1 ho2) and the pair get on the bridge and meet. Many particulars are related about this annual interview there is also a fantastical play called 渡銀河 tu4 yin2 ho2, the "Crossing of the silver river" in which the adventures and sorrows of this loving pair are exposed to mortal eyes.

 (In the marriage procession) drums succeed drums--and gongs succeed gongs--a newly married bride relies on her father and mother-in-law--the father moon reclines on the Shorea tree--and the constellations of the Herdboy and the Spinning damsel each lie on one side of the milky way.
 [* Really, 娑羅兒樹 was not related to the botanical Shorea. From long times ago,it was also called 月桂(yue gui). And in the history texts, there sometimes seen its flowers or fruit was "fallen" from the heaven. Generally they were written as so beautiful and fragrant. Afterwards this image of the "Tree in the moon" was confounded with the name of the tree in the Buddist text, which the tree grown where the Buddha was died. I think, the image of the tree in the Chinese mind is a gigantic tree flower like "Lagerstroemia indica L."(sometimes they called sha-luo or sha-la in the dialect) and fragrant like Osmanthus's flowers.]

◎V155-201 紅得哩/指甲草兒/藍得哩/翠雀兒/七根鬚兒/六個瓣兒/晚香玉得哩/藹康尖兒。

 Pekinese boys sing these words to imitate the street-call of the flower sellers. The two sounds which I have written 得哩 to-li, and occur three times in these verses are altogether phonetic and with no meaning tone or accent so the first verse is pronounced as if it were written hung toli.
 指甲草兒 chih3 chia3 ts'ao3'r (pronounce chih2 chia3) lit.finger grass, is the China balsam (Impatiens balsamina) with whose red flowers chinese lad as dye their fingers, as the Arab women with the henn[e4]. The flowers of this plant may have different shades of colour from plain white to deep red, and are also called 鳳仙花 feng4 hsien1 hua1.
 翠雀兒 ts'uei4 ch'iao3'r, the larkspur.
 花鬚兒 hua1 hsü1'r, stamens and style of flowers.
 矮康 ai1 k'ang1, an aromatic plant, basilic(Ocymum basilicum).

 Here is the red!--China balsam--here is the blue!--the larkspur--with seven stamens--and six petals--the tuberose--and the basilic grass.

◎V156-202 大娘二娘猜/三娘罵我醜奴才/我也不是偸來的/我也不是跑來的/花紅綠轎兒娶來的/瞧瞧奴家的手/金珠瑪瑙一大斗/瞧瞧奴家的牙/從小兒愛喝個菓子茶。

 It happens very often in a family that all the brothers marry and do not live in seperate establishments. All the young wives live together and in order to distinguish them, the elder brother's wife is called ta4-niang2, the second brother's eur4 niang2 and so forth. In this way a system of subordination prevails in the family, and the older wives indulge rather often in teasing the younger ones. The ta4-niang2, this powerful chief of this female clan has a greater authority than all and is consequently allowed to brew the most mischief possible in the family.
 猜 ts'ai1, lit. to guess, to solve riddles, very probably means here to guess, to doubt, to make investigations, suppositions on the woman who is the plaintiff in the song, the youngest wife who complains of having been insulted.
 醜奴才 ch'ou3 nu2 ts'ai2 "ugly slave" a must insulting appellation to a woman who has been legally married, implying that she is not a legal wife but a bought slave.
 偸來的 t'ou1 lai2 ti, to come stealthily, that is to say come and live with a man without any legal and customary sanction. The same meaning is very curiously expressed in the phrase 手拉手兒來的 shou3 la1 shou3 lai2 ti--lit."to come taking each other by the hand" that is said of two persons who like each other and without parental permission and the ordinary ceremony take each other by the hand and go and live together. --After that in English would be found "but" this most interesting particle is wanting here.
 花紅轎 hua1 hung2 ch'iao4, "the chair as red as (red) flowers", in which the bride sits, when she is taken from her own paternal house to her husband's.
 綠轎 lü4 chiao4, one or two green chairs in which sit some of the girl's relations to take her to the new home.
 奴家 nu2 chia1, a term of modesty used by wives for "I"--
 瑪瑙 ma3 nao3, cornelian.
 菓子茶 kuo3 tzu ch'a2, "tea with sugared fruits, as taken by rich people.

 The first wife and the second wife play at guessing riddles--the third wife insults me as "an ugly slave"--but I did not come here stealthily--nor did I run away to come here--I was married and taken here in a red chair and was followed by green chairs--look here at my hands!--I could fill a big peck with the gold pearls and cornelion that I wear--look here at my teeth!--since I was a child I have been accustomed to take "tea with candied fruits".

◎V157-204 小胖小子兒眞有哏兒/你可愛死個人兒/小胖小子兒胖達達/你是誰家的愛娃娃/買美人兒/買美人兒/買到家裏作個看家的人兒/有人兒/沒人兒/不用鎖門兒。

 哏兒 ken2'r, no recognized character exists for this word which means, amusing, pleasant. These words are form a mother to her own boy.--
 愛死 ai4 ssŭ3, to cause somebody to die of love.
 胖達達 p'ang4 ta1 ta1, very fat and big observe here ta1 for ta2.
 愛娃娃 ai4 ua2 ua2, a beloved child.
 美人兒 mei3 jen2'r, a beauty, said particularly of women, but here of the boy.

 This fat boy of mine really amuses people!--you really make people die of love!--this fat boy of mine how big he is--(now,tell me) whose beloved child are you?--who wants to buy a beauty! who wants to buy a beauty!--when bought and taken home he may be employed in looking after the house--never mind whether there are other people or not--it will be quite useless to shut the door with a key.

◎V158-205 高高山上一個牛/四個蹄子分八瓣兒/尾巴長在屁股後頭/腦袋長在脖子上頭。

 瓣 pan1, the division of a hoof.
 The description of this extraordinary ox will no doubt interest the reader.

 On a very high mountain there is an ox--which has four hoofs and eight toes--his tail is grown under his rump--and his head is placed on his neck!

◎V159-206 買一包/還有你們鬧一包/大爺喫了愛撂跤/你們是撂私跤/你們是撂官跤/開着的跛脚大箍腰。

 These words are sung by children who want to imitate the itinerant vendors of a drug for professional wrestlers, which is called 壯藥 chuang4 yao4. It is made into black pills, called 百補増力丸 puo2 pu3 tseng1 li4 uan2, "the hundred times fortifying pills.
 鬧 nao4, is not here in its original meaning but instead of 買 mai3, to buy the expression is only used in Pekinese slang.
 大爺 ta4 ye2, vulgar appellation for a gentleman whose name and titles are unknown.
 撂跤 liao4 chiao1, to wrestle.
 私跤 ssu1 chiao1, wrestling among friends in a club (廠子 ch'ang3-tzu) where there is daily practice for private entertainment or with the view of entering by means of the examinations the Imperial wrestlers Corps, whose perfect and official wrestling-school is called 官跤 kuan1 chiao1.
 開着的 k'ai1 cho1 ti, all this verse is composed of technical wrestling terms this one may possibly mean to give, to play a stroke, a move.
 跛脚 p'uo1 chiao3, to kick the adversary on the ankle in order to make him lose his balance and fail.
 箍腰 ku1 yao1, catching the adversary by the waist to throw him to the ground by sheer superiority of strength.

◎V160-207 初一初二初三初四兒/禿媽養活了一個禿寶貝兒/喫禿咂兒/抱禿八兒/禿了脖梗子/禿腦袋瓜兒。

 These verses are completely devoid of any sense.
 八兒 pa'r, name of the child.
 On the first, on the second, on the third and on the fourth--the hairless mother has given birth to a hairless treasure--who sucks a hairless breast--she embraces the hairless young Pa--who has a hairless neck and a hairless head.
 [* see also 平164-087.]

◎V161-208 你要奢你要奢/你要包金的大耳挖/等着搖銅鼓兒的過來你去拿。

 These words are said by mothers to little girls.
 The character 奢 is read here sha2 which means in county dialect what? and is used instead of the Pekinese 甚麽 shemmo3.
 耳挖 eur3 ua2, an ear-pick. The women generally wear a silver one stuck in the hair above the left ear. Sometimes like other silver head-gears, it is gilt.
 搖銅鼓兒的 iao2 t'ung2 ku3'r ti, a man who goes around in the street shaking a brass drum, and selling hair-pins, generally brass ones.

 What do you want, what do you want?--you want a big gilt ear-pick--wait till the man with the brass drum comes over and then go take it.

◎V162-209 鞭爆一響把張開/増福財神兩邊兒排/招財童子中間坐/増福仙増壽仙劉海兒本是海中仙/一撒金二撒銀/三撒騾馬成了羣/四撒搖錢樹/五撒聚寶盆/五子登科六六順。

 This rhyme is sung by boys who go round on new-year's eve to wish good luck to the families in the neighbourhood and to get the gift of some cash. The style is not altogether su-hua.
 鞭炮, pien1 p'ao4 "whip crackers" a sort of fire-crackers which sound like the cracking of a whip.
 把張開 pa4 chang1 k'ai1, "people open their accounts" the shops which have been shut for three, four or more days at the festival of the New-year, choose a lucky day to reopen the shop and recommence business. This ceremony is performed with solemnity and with a number of fire-crackers in proportion to the importance of the shop.
 増福財神 tseng1 fu2 ts'ai2 shen2, "the God of wealth who increases happiness" title of the divinity most respected by shopmen.
 招財童子 chao1 ts'ai2 t'ung2 tzu3, "the young man who sttracts the wealth" another divinity whose image is pasted by shopmen on the shop door. All the following are also names of divinities.
 増福仙 tseng1 fu2 hsien1, the Genius who increases happiness.
 増壽仙 tseng1 shou4 hsien1, the Genius who lengthens one's age.
 劉海兒 liu2 hai3'r, name of a Genius supposed to bring wealth to his owner. He is represented wearing a neck lace of gold pieces.
 成了羣 ch'eng2 la ch'ün2, so many as to form a herd of them.
 搖錢樹 yao2 ch'ien2 shu4, a fabulous tree whose branches are covered with gold and silver, which falls down when one shakes the tree.
 聚寶盆 chü4 pao3 p'en2, a fabulous basin said to be possessed in former times by a certain 沈 shen3 this basin had the useful quality of doubling the weight and value of the precious metal laid in it.
 登科 teng4 k'o1, to be approved at the official examinations.
 六六順 liu4 liu4 shun4, six times six may you have favour (may you find every thing smooth for you).

 Here is the first discharge of crackers and the shop begins to receive customers--on both sides is exhibited the God of wealth--and in the middle sits "the young man who attracts wealth--there are also the Genius of happiness, the Genius of long life and Lui-hair who is originally a genius from the sea--first let him shower gold--secondly let him shower silver--thirdly let him give you as many horses and mules as would make herds of them--fourthly let him grant you the golden-tree--fifthly let him grant you the Treasure casket--five sons all of whom shall pass the examinations and a sixfold happiness.

◎V163-211 天皇皇/地皇皇/我家有個夜哭郎/過往君子念三遍/一家睡到大天光。

 This small rhyme is sung by mothers to get children asleep and to break the evil charm which forces them to be awake. The chinese paste on the walls of the town and even in places of which no mention need be made some words which, read three times, are thought to exert a very favourable influence on the events of the day as regards the reader. These spell sentences are generally called 咒語 chou43--(the word chou4, here is in a good sense, whilst in other phrases it may mean "to read incantations and spells against some body" as in the phrase 咒罵 chou4 ma4, which means to insult and to wish bad luck to one with ready made words). --One of the most common and powerful spells is contained in the first-two verses of the rhyme, as the words which compose them are considered the most honourable of all the characters. --This spell is jokingly composed as if it were intended to be pasted on walls, and not to be sung beside the cradles of babies.
 夜哭郎 ye4 k'u1 lang2, in nursery talk means a young gentleman who won't go to sleep.

 Heaven is imperial!--The Earth is imperial--I have at home a young gentleman who weeps during the night--Let all the gentlemen who go by read these words three times--and all the family will sleep till broad daylight.
 [* Many variations are recorded. The earliest case which I know was cited in『越諺』(c.1882),巻中風俗, as follows; "天喤喤,地喤喤,我家有個夜噭郎,過路君子讀一&M003995;,一覚困到大天光." ]

◎V164-212 竈王爺/本姓張/一碗涼水三炷香/今年小子混的苦/明年再喫關東糖。

 There are two gods of the hearth, the one is Li and is not married, the other has the surname of Chang and is married. These words are supposed to be uttered by a poor man who is performing the annual sacriface to the God, but has not money enough to buy the sugar required for the occasion, and can only afford to prepare the bowl of water for the god's horse and three incense sticks.
 小子 hsiao3 tzu "the young man" here jocularly used for I, the undermentioned.
 混的苦 hun4 ti k'u3, I am living very wretchedly.

 O God of the hearth--whose surname is Chang--here is a bowl of water and three incense-sticks--this year I am living very miserably--next year you shall eat the Manchurian sugar.
 [* see also 平195-102.]

◎V165-213 頭遍灰/還進斗/二遍灰/還將就/三遍灰/不進斗/拿在手/喃在口/看你進斗不進斗。

 This rhyme is sung by boys in the street to insult opium smokers. The ways of poor opium smokers are described. These unhappy people when they have smoked the opium pill take the ashes 灰 huei1, mix them up with saliva and make a new pill, which they place in the pipe-hole called 斗 tou3. This operation of forming a new ball with the ashes is repeated as often as three times, after which the ash of the opium loses all taste whatever.
 頭遍 t'ou2 pien4, the first time.
 將就 chiang1 chiu4, tolerably good, it can be used.
 不進斗 pu4 chin4 tou3, it means "that the ashes are no longer any good, they cannot again be pressed together to form a pill, and therefore they cannot be smoked so they do not enter the bowl of the pipe.
 喃 this character is read an3 and nan3, and means to place something in the palm of the hand and raise it to the mouth also to stoop down to catch hold of something with the mouth. The opium smokers chew the opium ash when it cannot be smoked any more.

 The first time the ashes--may enter the bowl of the pipe the second time--it is not so good--and the third time--they cannot be used--then the man rolls the ashes in his hands--and raises them to his mouth--let us see if this time they can enter this(new) pipe mouth.

◎V166-215 年年有個三月三/王母娘娘慶壽誕/各洞神仙來上壽/蟠桃美酒會羣仙。

 The third day in the third moon is the birthday of Hsi1-uang2 mu3[*西王母], the western Royal Mother, worshipped by the Chinese.
 洞神 tung4 shen2, the Spirits are supposed to live in grottoes.
 蟠桃 p'an2 t'ao2 flat peaches. 蟠桃會 p'an2 t'ao2 huei4, is also called the festival in honour of Hsi-uang2-mu3, Every spirit in attendance is supposed to be presented with a peach. See the play called P'an-t'ao-huei.
 羣仙 ch'ün2 hsien1, to assemble the spirits.

 Every year there is the festival of the 3d day of the third moon--it is the Birthday of the Royal Mother--All the spirits in the grottoes come to assist at the ceremony--the flat peaches and the good wine can make the spirits assemble.

◎V167-216 南京大柳樹/北京沈萬三/滄州的獅子景州的塔/深州蜜桃扛口兒甜。

 In this rhyme are collected some of the rarities to be seen in the Empire.
 沈萬三 Shen3 uan4 san1, name of the proprietor of that famous treasure-basin 聚寶盆 chü4 pao3 p'en2 which has been spoken of before.[*No.162]
 滄州 ts'ang1 chow1, in the Tientsin prefecture. It is stated there is an iron lion, in the interior of which there is room for ten men.
 景州塔 ching3 chou1 t'a3, a high pagoda in Ching-chow, in the Chihli province it is stated it is very high and may be seen at the distance of fifty li.
 深州 shen1 chow1, a place renowned for its magnificient peaches.
 扛口兒甜 kang4 k'ou3'r t'ien2, so sweet that they fill the mouth the same idea is also expressed by 殺口兒甜 sha1 k'ou3'r t'ien2.

 The willow trees in Nanking--The man Shen-uan-san in Peking--the lion in Ts'ang-chow, and the pagoda in Ching-chow--and the very sweet peaches in Shen-chow.
 [* compounded some proverbs. the 3rd phrase "滄州的獅子景州的塔",had seen in『古謠諺』vol.65: "滄州獅子景州塔,眞定府裏大菩薩。". ]

◎V168-217 轂洞洞/太平車/裏頭坐着個俏哥哥/城外去聽野臺兒戲/回頭逛個十里河兒/老爺廟鬧吵吵/人海人山眞熱鬧/村兒裏的姑娘來賣俏/臉搽官粉賽過一個大白瓢。

 轂洞洞 ku1 tung1 tung1, a slang surname for a sort of travelling cart covered with a mat awninga better name for it is 太平車 t'ai4 p'ing2 ch'o1.
 野臺兒戲 ye3 t'ai2'r hsi4, performances on wooden stages in the country, the expense which is paid for by means of general contributions amongst the peasants.
 十里河兒 shih2 li3 ho2'r,"the ten li river" a brook outside the Kiang-tso-men[*廣渠門] in Peking. By its side there is a large temple in which a festival is held on the 24th of the 6th moon: its name is 老爺廟 Lao3 ye2 miao4.
 鬧吵吵 nao4 ch'ao1 ch'ao1, great noise and hubbub.
 人海人山 jen2 hai3 jen2 shan1, the men were there as thick as water and as high as hills.
 賣俏 mai4 ch'iao4,"to sell attractions" means "to make display" to show off. The comparison of the girls head with the white cala-bash is made in mockery.

 In the awning-cart--there sits a nice fellow--he is going outside the town to hear the village comedies--and then he will go down to the River of ten li--in the Lao-ye temple there is great confusion--the crowd is enormous, and it is very animated--the girls from the villages come here to display their charms--and their faces rubbed with white cosmetics look just like white gourds.

◎V169-218 壽星老兒福祿星/増福増壽壽長生/生文生武生貴子/子孝孫賢輩輩兒榮。

 This rhyme is sung by children on birthdays.
 The three happy stars are the 壽星 shou4 hsing1, the star of longevity, 福星 fu2 hsing1, the star of happiness and 祿星 lu4 hsing1, the star of appointment.
 The spirit which presides over longevity is called 壽星老兒 shou4 hsing1 lao3'r.

 The spirit of longevity, and the stars of happiness and appointment--may they increase your happiness and your longevity so that you may live a long life--and have sons in the literary career, in the military career and in high positions--may your sons be pious and your grandsons be for ever glorious.

◎V170-219 小胖哥/玩藝兒多/搬不倒兒/婆婆車/風刮燕兒一大串兒/冰糖葫蘆兒是果餡兒。

 搬不倒兒 pan1 pu4 tao3'r, a toy consisting of a round ball of clay on which is stuck a paper man--the plaything is so made that in whatever position one puts it, by the law of gravity it takes again its upright position.
 婆婆車 p'uo2 p'uo2 ch'o1, ladies carriage, another toy.
 風刮燕兒 feng1 kua1 yen4'r, another plaything in the form of a stick on which a thread is tied, not unlike a fiddlestick. On this thread are fixed many paper flowers, which at the least breath of wind begin to revolve causing a peculiar whirring round.
 冰糖葫蘆 ping1 t'ang2 hu2 lu2, some fruits as the hai-t'ang are strung together by a thin stick and covered with sugar this is called a "sugar-gourd".

 This fat boy--has many toys--a clay puppet--and a small cart--and a great string of paper flowers--and sugar-gourds stuffed with fruits.

********************* for digital 歌目 *********************